A politics actually based on the Bible might surprise some Christians
In the twenty-first century certain politicians have ridden to power in the US using the Bible as a source of proof texts to support their reactionary proposals, including the criminalization of abortion, support of a constitutional amendment that would outlaw gay marriage, opposition to stem cell research and the teaching of evolutionary biology in the public schools, tax cuts for the rich, opposition to regulations designed to protect the environment, not to mention the doctrine of preemptive war that has led to the disasters in Iraq and Afghanistan. All of this, it is argued, is a "Christian politics" based squarely on the authority of the Bible despite the fact that there is nothing in the Bible about abortion, gay marriage, stem cell research, tax cuts, protections for businesses that want to despoil the environment or preemptive war.
To be sure the Bible has a lot to say about human reproduction and procreation, sex and gender, our relationship to nature, the untrammeled pursuit of knowledge, war and peace, and the exploitation of the poor. But it is not easy to move in a straight line from certain passages in the Bible toward a political agenda that can be realistically and faithfully applied by people of conscience in the twenty-first century.
If one were to attempt to construct a contemporary politics based upon core principles of the Bible, the result might surprise some people, particularly Christians who consider themselves card-carrying members of the religious right.
Basic Principles of the Bible
Any politics that takes the Bible seriously must begin with the account of creation in the book of Genesis. Here humanity is created in the image and likeness of God. From a biblical perspective no individual or group, whether nation, race or tribe can be considered superior to another as all people are created as equal in Gods image. Likewise this becomes the basis of the entire legal and ethical system that follows in that all members of the community are considered equal in the eyes of the law. Genesis further assigns to humanity the task of caretaker or steward of creation which God calls good. I will discuss in some detail the practical implications of such principles below, but first, there is more.
Later in the Hebrew Bible the fundamental principles of the Judeo-Christian tradition are set forth in what later came to be known as the double love commandments: the people are instructed to love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength (DT 6:5) and love your neighbor as yourself. (LV 9:18) Jesus clearly affirmed these two principles when he connected a right relationship with God to a right relationship with ones fellow human beings. One of the core principles of the Judeo-Christian tradition is the link between unjust treatment of another human being with a wrong committed against God. This is a central element in the prophetic teaching of Hebrew Bible prophets as well as Jesus. Further, the Bible expresses a special concern for the most vulnerable and powerless members of the human family. The Bible strongly condemns those who use positions of power or privilege to take advantage of the poor, the marginalized, or the powerless.
In the biblical context, these principles apply to individuals to be sure, but also to groups of people as well as nations. Indeed, within the Judeo-Christian tradition, the ethical norms that apply to individuals are identical to those that apply to nations. Further, these principles are not merely abstract ideals, but are consistently connected to concrete behaviors; for example, leaving sufficient food in ones fields at the time of harvest so that the poor would have enough to eat. Further, specific biblical laws provide for the periodic forgiveness of debt, the liberation of prisoners, and the return of land to those who may have lost it, even through the consequences of their own behavior. In other words, the Bible outlines specific means for redressing wrongs such that the disadvantaged members of society have an opportunity to regain their means of self-support and self-sufficiency.
In addition to providing special protections for the poor and the marginalized members of a community, the Bible also imposes upon the powerful and the privileged leaders of the nation substantially greater obligation to maintain the general well being of the community. Hebrew Bible prophets focus their harshest criticism against leaders who make decisions on the basis of mere expediency, rather than justice, or who exercise their authority by exploiting the poor or the marginalized. The nation is seen, throughout both the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament as having a positive responsibility for the welfare of the entire population.
Jesus as prophet and political philosopher
In the New Testament, Jesus clearly identifies himself with this prophetic tradition. Indeed, in one of the few passages in which he speaks of a final judgment at the end of human history, he makes this identification explicit. In this dramatic passage, Jesus outlines the standards by which entire nations shall be judged: I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me, I was naked and you clothed me, I was sick and you visited me, I was in prison and you came to me. (See MT 25:32ff) Curiously, those who are being rewarded in this passage are unclear what they have done to deserve such high praise. The answer which Jesus places in the mouth of the king in this story is instructive: Truly, I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me. Here, once again, attaining a right relationship with God is equated with concrete acts of compassion for the less fortunate members of society. And the principle is applied by Jesus to entire nations as well as individuals.
In addition to affirming the ethical norms of the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament explicitly forbids the economic oppression of the poor, weak, and the vulnerable. There are specific instructions to tax collectors and soldiers to avoid extorting money. Jesus personally criticized certain hypocritical religious leaders for devour[ing] widows houses, and thus taking economic advantage of those who were, in the context of the Ancient Near East, the least powerful members of society.
In addition to issuing specific instructions to share economic resources with those in need, especially those who cannot reciprocate, the New Testament also warns those enjoying an abundance of wealth to avoid the temptation of putting their trust and loyalty in money and possessions rather than God. Moreover, in his declaration that he has come to preach good news to the poor and release the oppressed, Jesus invoked the most basic prophetic principles, suggesting that changes in the basic structures of society would be required to advance Gods will for humanity.
Clearly, a nation that operates in a manner consistent with such biblical norms of fairness, justice, and equity must foster the well being of all of its citizens, and cannot permit exploitation of the weak by the more powerful. The use of power to privilege the rich and disadvantage the poor is, from a biblical perspective, an offense against the Creator.
As history reveals, it is more difficult to apply the basic principles of the Judeo-Christian tradition to international relationships, especially in the context of war. Still, there has been a great deal of thought and effort invested in working out a just war theory that attempts to apply universal norms to affairs of state. In this context, the most basic principle of Genesis clearly does apply: namely, since the entire human family is created in the image and likeness of God, no nation holds a greater claim upon the favor of God than any other nation. Likewise, actions in the international arena can and must be judged by the same standards used in evaluating social structures, policies and laws within a nations borders: namely, does a given policy advantage the powerful over the weak, and does a given policy have beneficial or harmful effects upon the entire human family?
While there are examples of wars being justified in the name of God within the pages of the Bible, there is a dawning prophetic awareness of the evil of warfare. Isaiah, in particular, paints a vision of the future in which all nations shall live peacefully together; the prophet envisions a day when God will judge between the nations and will settle disputes for many peoples. They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not take up sword against nation, nor will they train for war anymore. (Isaiah 2:3f) In the New Testament, Jesus warned that those who live by the sword will die by the sword. He also counseled against behaviors that are based on a desire for retaliation or revenge, and he instructed his disciples to extend love of neighbor even toward ones enemy: "You have heard that it was said, 'Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth.' But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. And: You have heard that it was said, 'Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you. (Matthew 5:38ff)
Bottom line: a biblical ethic does not and cannot justify the use of evil to attain the good, even in international relationships.
Never pay back evil for evil to anyone. Respect what is right in the sight of all. If possible, so far as it depends on you, be at peace with all. Never take your own revenge, beloved, but leave room for the wrath of God, for it is written, "Vengeance is Mine, I will repay," says the Lord. "But if your enemy is hungry, feed him, and if he is thirsty, give him a drink; for in so doing you will heap burning coals upon his head. Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. (Romans 12:17ff)
In short, a nation that relies upon the power of its weapons, like an individual who relies upon the privileges of wealth and power, stands under the judgment of a just and loving God.
There are a number of topics being debated in the the politics of the nation where such biblical principles might be applied. Among the issues on which the wisdom of the Bible would clearly apply are the following:
The Relationship of Money To Power
It is difficult to imagine how a political system that allows such a large role to be played by money, and monied interest groups, can be justified given the principles outlined above. Likewise, when elected officials allow their decisions to be dictated by the wealthy and the powerful, rather than acting in the common good, those officials violate of the most basic norms of the Judeo-Christian tradition. On the other hand, when observing all of this happening in the nations political life, individual citizens should not yield to the temptation of cynicism and despair. For as outlined above, government has a clear responsibility to act on behalf of the common good and to insure the equal protection of the law for all of its citizens. In a democracy, the people can and must hold their elected rulers accountable.
Crime and Punishment
There are also clear implications of the Judeo-Christian tradition for the criminal justice system. Vengeance and retribution have no place in a society that governs itself by the rule of law, let alone by the ethical norms of the biblical and prophetic tradition. Rather, the purpose of the criminal justice system is to restore those who have violated the law, whenever possible, to a situation of good standing in the community, remembering that even the most hardened criminals are created in the image and likeness of God. Today our criminal justice system hardly even attempts to rehabilitate its vast prison populations, one of the largest in the world. This is a crime not only against humanity, but against the Creator.
Foreign Policy / Security
While biblical principles allow for the use of force as a last resort in self-defense, it is clear that reliance upon the force of arms to the exclusion of diplomacy and in preference to non-violent means of resolving international conflict is a major violation of the core principles of the Judeo-Christian tradition. While our elected leaders are required by the Constitution to defend the nation against attack, and the people have every right to expect them to be resolute in doing so, our rulers are also required by an even higher authority to act in the best interest of the entire human family for no nation holds a position of privilege in the eyes of God. Therefore the first and foremost responsibility of our nations leaders is to forge global partnerships, and nurture international relationship such that Isaiahs vision of a peaceful world can, at last, be realized. The United States must use its extra-ordinary power and wealth in the same ways that individuals are required to do, namely, on behalf of the worlds least fortunate people and on behalf of the cause of peace which all the peoples of the world desperately desire.
Health and Welfare
Arguably, the most urgent priority of government is to insure the health and welfare of its citizens, with specific attention to the needs of those who are disadvantaged by the present educational system, who are marginalized, unemployed or underemployed due to changing circumstances beyond their own control, and to insure that no citizen suffers without access to basic means of survival including food, shelter, and medical care. The state must provide quality education to all of its citizens, and access to health care by providing universal coverage for all. As indicated above, the very young and the very old would be specially favored by a biblical ethic. This suggests that early childhood education as well as retirement and health care benefits to seniors be among the nations highest priorities, and that a system that favors the wealthy over the poor and the powerless stands in a direct violation of the clearest and most unambiguous principles of the prophetic tradition.
Protection of the Environment
Further, the biblical mandate that humanity act as steward and caretaker of all creation suggests that government has a more positive role to play in protecting and preserving the environment. Recent attempts to roll back environmental legislation in favor of short term profits for corporations are not only short sighted and self-interested, they are also a violation of the biblical mandate to care for the health and welfare of the planet which is our God given home.
It is also clear that in the context of todays market economy, government cannot meet all the needs of citizens. But governments can act to insure that every citizen has access to job training, child care, and as a last resort, government subsidized employment, so that the least well equipped and well educated citizens can find a way toward economic self-sufficiency. In our market driven economy, a sense of self worth is often contingent upon finding the means to earn a decent wage and provide for the necessities of life for ones self as well as ones family. Today there is a grave structural problem in that large numbers of the nations workers are investing longer hours at their jobs and being rewarded with lower wages. At the same time, with average wages for the working poor continuing to decline, even as those at the top enjoy tax cuts, rising stock prices, and increases in compensation, our system is failing those who would be most favored by a consistent application of Judeo-Christian principles to the nations tax system, its economic policies, and its regulatory policies. Short term profits for the few have all too often been encouraged by national policies rather than the best interests of the many.
The nations tax system in recent years has become regressive rather than progressive, favoring the rich over the middle class and the poor. This is not only bad for the economy, it is bad for the soul and the conscience of the nation and is directly in conflict with the core principles of the Judeo-Christian tradition. From a biblical perspective, a regressive tax system is a form of theft.
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The Rev. Charles P. Henderson is a Presbyterian minister and
Executive Director of CrossCurrents.
He is the author of God and Science (John Knox Press, 1986).
A revised and expanded version of the book is appearing here. God and Science (Hypertext Edition,
He is also editor of a new book, featuring articles by world class scientists and theologians, and illustrating the leading views on the relationship between science and religion: Faith, Science and the Future (CrossCurrents Press, 2007).
Charles also tracks the boundry between the virtual and the real at his blog: Next World Design, focusing on the mediation of art, science and spirituality in the metaverse.