Jerusalem Cross was first used as a coat of arms for the Latin Kingdom in Jerusalem.
During the Crusades, it was referred to as the "Crusaders Cross." The
four small crosses are symbolic of the four Gospels proclaimed to the four corners
of the earth, beginning in Jerusalem; the large cross symbolizes the person of
The Kingdom of Jerusalem
was established in 1098, when the members of the First Crusade captured Jerusalem
and elected Godfrey of Boulogne, duke of Lower-Lorraine, as king of Jerusalem.
The city was taken back by the Muslims in 1291
The fish has been an important Christian symbol,
not only because of the fact that Jesus included several fishermen in his close
circle, but also because The initial letters of each word in the Greek phrase
"Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior" form the word ICHTHUS, which means
The Ankh Cross
The Ankh Cross is an ancient Egyptian symbol for life, combining
the feminine circle and masculine staff to form the whole. It was adapted by early
Christians because of its resemblance to the cross.
Some of the images on this page are the work of Walter E. Gast and are used with permission. For further information about copyright permissions please visit the Christian Symbols Home Page: http://www.planetgast.net/symbols/
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The Rev. Charles P. Henderson is a Presbyterian minister and
Executive Director of CrossCurrents.
He is the author of God and Science (John Knox Press, 1986).
A revised and expanded version of the book is appearing here. God and Science (Hypertext Edition,
He is also editor of a new book, featuring articles by world class scientists and theologians, and illustrating the leading views on the relationship between science and religion: Faith, Science and the Future (CrossCurrents Press, 2007).
Charles also tracks the boundry between the virtual and the real at his blog: Next World Design, focusing on the mediation of art, science and spirituality in the metaverse.