Combining the cross with a ring surrounding the intersection. It is a characteristic
symbol of Celtic Christianity, though it may have older, pre-Christian origins.
style of cross evolved in the British Isles, and the earliest forms date from
the seventh to ninth centuries in Ireland, Wales, and Scotland. The oldest Celtic
crosses were carved into large slabs of rock that lay flat on the ground. Later
versions stand in an upright position, with rock carved away from the cross. Tenth-century
Irish crosses were sometimes capped with a pitched roof. Celtic crosses were often
decorated with interlaced knot work, spirals, key patterns, animal figures, foliage
designs, and Biblical stories. Other examples preserved the earlier, Druid symbols
alongside those of Christianity.
The Fish The fish
has been an important Christian symbol, not only because of the fact that Jesus
included several fishermen in his close circle, but also because The initial letters
of each word in the Greek phrase "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior"
form the word ICHTHUS, which means "fish."
If you want to talk with someone in person, please feel free to call 212-864-5436
The Rev. Charles P. Henderson is a Presbyterian minister and
Executive Director of CrossCurrents.
He is the author of God and Science (John Knox Press, 1986).
A revised and expanded version of the book is appearing here. God and Science (Hypertext Edition,
He is also editor of a new book, featuring articles by world class scientists and theologians, and illustrating the leading views on the relationship between science and religion: Faith, Science and the Future (CrossCurrents Press, 2007).
Charles also tracks the boundry between the virtual and the real at his blog: Next World Design, focusing on the mediation of art, science and spirituality in the metaverse.