Jesus the "Son of God" is understood to be the distinguishing affirmation
of the Christian faith. Yet within the wider Christian family there is a range
of opinion about what this title actually means. In order to clarify the issues
at stake, let's look at the origins of the title, how its meaning has changed
over time, and how different Christians understand it today.
of the title
Most Christians would be surprised to learn that
"Son of God" is a title with a long history in the ancient world. Many
gods and goddesses where believed to have children. The title did not originate
within the imagination of early Christians, or even within the minds of biblical
Nor is Jesus the only "Son of God" mentioned in
the Bible. For example, Psalm 2, is thought to have been used as part of the coronation
ceremony for the Kings of ancient Israel. In it the Psalm writer declares:
have set my king on Zion, my holy hill. I will tell of the decree of the LORD:
He said to me, "Thou art my Son, today I have begotten you." Christians
will find these words familiar. They appear again in the New Testament. When Jesus
is baptized by John, a voice taken to be that of God announces: "This is
my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased."
of Jesus change over time
Clearly, the title is used in different
ways by different writers at different times. For example, within the first decades
after the death of Jesus, Christians began to affirm that Jesus was the "only"
Son of God. The gospel of John goes even further, suggesting that Jesus was not
born, but rather was present with God at the Creation. Over time it became more
common to affirm that "Jesus is God."
Not everyone was
happy with this evolution of thought, however. Many wanted to retain a Jesus who
was fully human, a man born like the rest of us, with the same temptations, weaknesses
and humanity as any of us. And these Christians found support for their view in
the Bible. Right alongside the words that proclaimed the divinity of Jesus, were
those suggesting his humanity.
Jesus as fully human
There are numerous passages that suggest that Jesus needed to learn and grow like
the rest of us, that he suffered real pain, and was limited in his knowledge,
just as all humans are. For example, in the letter to the Hebrews the author compared
Jesus to a priest of ancient Israel and says: In the days of his flesh, Jesus
offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to him who was
able to save him from death, and he was heard for his godly fear. Although he
was a Son, he learned obedience through what he suffered.
apostle Paul suggests that all people can become, by a gift of God's grace, "the
Sons of God." As he puts it in his letter to the Romans: "All who are
led by the Spirit of God are Sons of God."
Fully human and
Wanting to maintain an understanding of Jesus as
being fully human, while also proclaiming his divinity, church fathers came up
with a short phrase that captures it all. As approved in a doctrinal statement
adopted at the Council Chalcedon in 491 C.E., Jesus was said to be "fully
human and fully divine."
Did this end debate about the nature
of Jesus? No. But it did define a set of parameters within which Jesus is understood.
Henceforth, explanations of Christ's divinity cannot be framed in a way that makes
him out to be anything less than fully human, and at the same time, explanations
of his humanity cannot be drawn in such a way as to compromise his divinity.
Diversity in the Christian family today
Still, within the
Christian family today there is a range of understandings of the title "Son
of God," and more than that, a variety of opinions about his identity. For
some Jesus actually is God, the second person of the Trinity, fully divine in
the sense of being with God from and for all eternity. For others, Jesus is divine
precisely because he was fully human. Jesus was a man who, being led by the Spirit
of God, became the Son of God in the same way that Paul said any person could
when living in harmony with God's will and purpose.
There are, of
course, strengths and weaknesses with all definitions of Jesus. Those who think
"Jesus Christ is God," risk defining Jesus in such a way that he can
no longer be fully human, while those who focus on his humanity risk the loss
of his distinctive stature within the Christian tradition.
For the health of the Church and for the vitality of its
tradition, Christians need to affirm that Jesus is the Son of God in such a way
that he continues to be seen as both fully human and fully divine. Within this
tension Christianity remains a living and evolving faith.
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The Rev. Charles P. Henderson is a Presbyterian minister and
Executive Director of CrossCurrents.
He is the author of God and Science (John Knox Press, 1986).
A revised and expanded version of the book is appearing here. God and Science (Hypertext Edition,
He is also editor of a new book, featuring articles by world class scientists and theologians, and illustrating the leading views on the relationship between science and religion: Faith, Science and the Future (CrossCurrents Press, 2007).
Charles also tracks the boundry between the virtual and the real at his blog: Next World Design, focusing on the mediation of art, science and spirituality in the metaverse.