(2.) National. God adopted Israel (Ex. 4:22; Deut.
7:6; Hos. 11:1; Rom. 9:4).
(3.) Spiritual. An act of God's grace
by which he brings men into the number of his redeemed family, and makes them
partakers of all the blessings he has provided for them. Adoption represents the
new relations into which the believer is introduced by justification, and the
privileges connected therewith, viz., an interest in God's peculiar love (John
17:23; Rom. 5:5-8), a spiritual nature (2 Pet. 1:4; John 1:13), the possession
of a spirit becoming children of God (1 Pet. 1:14; 2 John 4; Rom. 8:15-21; Gal.
5:1; Heb. 2:15), present protection, consolation, supplies (Luke 12:27-32; John
14:18; 1 Cor. 3:21-23; 2 Cor. 1:4), fatherly chastisements (Heb. 12:5-11), and
a future glorious inheritance (Rom. 8:17,23; James 2:5; Phil. 3:21).
- to worship; to express reverence and homage. The forms of adoration among
the Jews were putting off the shoes (Ex. 3:5; Josh. 5:15), and prostration (Gen.
17:3; Ps. 95:6; Isa. 44:15, 17, 19; 46:6). To "kiss the Son" in Ps. 2:12 is to
adore and worship him. (See Dan. 3:5, 6.) The word itself does not occur in Scripture.
Adrammelech - Adar the king. (1.)
An idol; a form of the sun-god worshipped by the inhabitants of Sepharvaim (2
Kings 17:31), and brought by the Sepharvite colonists into Samaria. (2.) A son
of Sennacherib, king of Assyria (2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38).
- a city of Asia Minor on the coast of Mysia, which in early times was called
AEolis. The ship in which Paul embarked at Caesarea belonged to this city (Acts
27:2). He was conveyed in it only to Myra, in Lycia, whence he sailed in an Alexandrian
ship to Italy. It was a rare thing for a ship to sail from any port of Palestine
direct for Italy. It still bears the name Adramyti, and is a place of some traffic.
Adria - (Acts 27:27; R.V., "the sea
of Adria"), the Adriatic Sea, including in Paul's time the whole of the Mediterranean
lying between Crete and Sicily. It is the modern Gulf of Venice, the Mare Superum_
of the Romans, as distinguished from the Mare Inferum_ or Tyrrhenian Sea.
Adriel - flock of God, the son of
Barzillai, the Meholathite, to whom Saul gave in marriage his daughter Merab (1
Sam. 18:19). The five sons that sprang from this union were put to death by the
Gibeonites (2 Sam. 21:8, 9. Here it is said that Michal "brought up" [R.V., "bare"]
these five sons, either that she treated them as if she had been their own mother,
or that for "Michal" we should read "Merab," as in 1 Sam. 18:19).
- one of the royal cities of the Canaanites, now 'Aid-el-ma (Josh. 12:15;
15:35). It stood on the old Roman road in the valley of Elah (q.v.), which was
the scene of David's memorable victory over Goliath (1 Sam. 17:2), and not far
from Gath. It was one of the towns which Rehoboam fortified against Egypt (2 Chr.
11:7). It was called "the glory of Israel" (Micah 1:15).
of Adullam has been discovered about 2 miles south of the scene of David's triumph,
and about 13 miles west from Bethlehem. At this place is a hill some 500 feet
high pierced with numerous caverns, in one of which David gathered together "every
one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was
discontented" (1 Sam. 22:2). Some of these caverns are large enough to hold 200
or 300 men. According to tradition this cave was at Wady Khureitun, between Bethlehem
and the Dead Sea, but this view cannot be well maintained.
- an inhabitant of the city of Adullam (Gen. 38:1, 12, 20).
- conjugal infidelity. An adulterer was a man who had illicit intercourse
with a married or a betrothed woman, and such a woman was an adulteress. Intercourse
between a married man and an unmarried woman was fornication. Adultery was regarded
as a great social wrong, as well as a great sin.
The Mosaic law
(Num. 5:11-31) prescribed that the suspected wife should be tried by the ordeal
of the "water of jealousy." There is, however, no recorded instance of the application
of this law. In subsequent times the Rabbis made various regulations with the
view of discovering the guilty party, and of bringing about a divorce. It has
been inferred from John 8:1-11 that this sin became very common during the age
preceding the destruction of Jerusalem.
and apostasy are spoken of as adultery spiritually (Jer. 3:6, 8, 9; Ezek. 16:32;
Hos. 1:2:3; Rev. 2:22). An apostate church is an adulteress (Isa. 1:21; Ezek.
23:4, 7, 37), and the Jews are styled "an adulterous generation" (Matt. 12:39).
(Comp. Rev. 12.)
Adummim - the red
ones, a place apparently on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem, "on the south
side of the torrent" Wady Kelt, looking toward Gilgal, mentioned Josh. 15:7; 18:17.
It was nearly half-way between Jerusalem and Jericho, and now bears the name of
Tal-at-ed-Dumm. It is supposed to have been the place referred to in the parable
of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:30-37). Recently a new carriage-road has been completed,
and carriages for the first time have come along this road from Jerusalem.
- (Heb. satan), an opponent or foe (1 Kings 5:4; 11:14, 23, 25; Luke 13:17);
one that speaks against another, a complainant (Matt. 5:25; Luke 12:58); an enemy
(Luke 18:3), and specially the devil (1 Pet. 5:8).
- (Gr. parakletos), one who pleads another's cause, who helps another by defending
or comforting him. It is a name given by Christ three times to the Holy Ghost
(John 14:16; 15:26; 16:7, where the Greek word is rendered "Comforter," q.v.).
It is applied to Christ in 1 John 2:1, where the same Greek word is rendered "Advocate,"
the rendering which it should have in all the places where it occurs. Tertullus
"the orator" (Acts 24:1) was a Roman advocate whom the Jews employed to accuse
Paul before Felix.
AEnon - springs,
a place near Salim where John baptized (John 3:23). It was probably near the upper
source of the Wady Far'ah, an open valley extending from Mount Ebal to the Jordan.
It is full of springs. A place has been found called 'Ainun, four miles north
of the springs.
Affection - feeling
or emotion. Mention is made of "vile affections" (Rom. 1:26) and "inordinate affection"
(Col. 3:5). Christians are exhorted to set their affections on things above (Col.
3:2). There is a distinction between natural and spiritual or gracious affections
Affinity - relationship
by alliance (2 Chr. 18:1) or by marriage (1 Kings 3:1). Marriages are prohibited
within certain degrees of affinity, enumerated Lev. 18:6-17. Consanguinity is
relationship by blood.
Afflictions - common
to all (Job 5:7; 14:1; Ps. 34:19); are for the good of men (James 1:2, 3, 12;
2 Cor. 12:7) and the glory of God (2 Cor. 12:7-10; 1 Pet. 4:14), and are to be
borne with patience by the Lord's people (Ps. 94:12; Prov. 3:12). They are all
directed by God (Lam. 3:33), and will result in the everlasting good of his people
(2 Cor. 4:16-18) in Christ Jesus (Rom. 8:35-39).
- a "prophet," probably one of the seventy disciples of Christ. He prophesied
at Antioch of an approaching famine (Acts 11:27, 28). Many years afterwards he
met Paul at Caesarea, and warned him of the bonds and affliction that awaited
him at Jerusalem should he persist in going thither (Acts 21:10-12).
- flame, the usual title of the Amalekite kings, as "Pharaoh" was of the Egyptian.
(1.) A king of the Amalekites referred to by Balaam (Num. 24:7). He lived at the
time of the Exodus.
(2.) Another king of the Amalekites whom Saul
spared unlawfully, but whom Samuel on his arrival in the camp of Saul ordered,
in retributive justice (Judg. 1), to be brought out and cut in pieces (1 Sam.
15:8-33. Comp. Ex. 17:11; Num. 14:45).
- a name applied to Haman and also to his father (Esther 3:1, 10; 8:3, 5).
Probably it was equivalent to Amalekite.
- (Heb. shebo), a precious stone in the breast-plate of the high priest (Ex.
28:19; 39:12), the second in the third row. This may be the agate properly so
called, a semi-transparent crystallized quartz, probably brought from Sheba, whence
its name. In Isa. 54:12 and Ezek. 27:16, this word is the rendering of the Hebrew
cadcod, which means "ruddy," and denotes a variety of minutely crystalline silica
more or less in bands of different tints.
This word is from the
Greek name of a stone found in the river Achates in Sicily.
- used to denote the period of a man's life (Gen. 47:28), the maturity of
life (John 9:21), the latter end of life (Job 11:17), a generation of the human
race (Job 8:8), and an indefinite period (Eph. 2:7; 3:5, 21; Col. 1:26). Respect
to be shown to the aged (Lev. 19:32). It is a blessing to communities when they
have old men among them (Isa. 65:20; Zech. 8:4). The aged supposed to excel in
understanding (Job 12:20; 15:10; 32:4, 9; 1 Kings 12:6, 8). A full age the reward
of piety (Job 5:26; Gen. 15:15).
- fugitive, the father of Shammah, who was one of David's mighty men (2 Sam.
Agony - contest; wrestling;
severe struggling with pain and suffering. Anguish is the reflection on evil that
is already past, while agony is a struggle with evil at the time present. It is
only used in the New Testament by Luke (22:44) to describe our Lord's fearful
struggle in Gethsemane.
The verb from which the noun "agony" is
derived is used to denote an earnest endeavour or striving, as "Strive [agonize]
to enter" (Luke 13:24); "Then would my servants fight" [agonize] (John 18:36).
Comp. 1 Cor. 9:25; Col. 1:29; 4:12; 1 Tim. 6:12; 2 Tim. 4:7, where the words "striveth,"
"labour," "conflict," "fight," are the renderings of the same Greek verb.
- Tilling the ground (Gen. 2:15; 4:2, 3, 12) and rearing cattle were the chief
employments in ancient times. The Egyptians excelled in agriculture. And after
the Israelites entered into the possession of the Promised Land, their circumstances
favoured in the highest degree a remarkable development of this art. Agriculture
became indeed the basis of the Mosaic commonwealth.
The year in
Palestine was divided into six agricultural periods:-
TIME. Tisri, latter half (beginning about the autumnal equinox.) Marchesvan. Kisleu,
former half. Early rain due = first showers of autumn.
TIME. Kisleu, latter half. Tebet. Sebat, former half.
SEASON. Sebat, latter half. Adar. [Veadar.] Nisan, former half. Latter rain due
(Deut. 11:14; Jer. 5:24; Hos. 6:3; Zech. 10:1; James 5:7; Job 29:23).
HARVEST TIME. Nisan, latter half. (Beginning about vernal equinox. Barley green.
Passover.) Ijar. Sivan, former half., Wheat ripe. Pentecost.
SUMMER (total absence of rain) Sivan, latter half. Tammuz. Ab, former half.
SULTRY SEASON Ab, latter half. Elul. Tisri, former half., Ingathering of fruits.
The six months from the middle of Tisri to the middle of Nisan
were occupied with the work of cultivation, and the rest of the year mainly with
the gathering in of the fruits. The extensive and easily-arranged system of irrigation
from the rills and streams from the mountains made the soil in every part of Palestine
richly productive (Ps. 1:3; 65:10; Prov. 21:1; Isa. 30:25; 32:2, 20; Hos. 12:11),
and the appliances of careful cultivation and of manure increased its fertility
to such an extent that in the days of Solomon, when there was an abundant population,
"20,000 measures of wheat year by year" were sent to Hiram in exchange for timber
(1 Kings 5:11), and in large quantities also wheat was sent to the Tyrians for
the merchandise in which they traded (Ezek. 27:17). The wheat sometimes produced
an hundredfold (Gen. 26:12; Matt. 13:23). Figs and pomegranates were very plentiful
(Num. 13:23), and the vine and the olive grew luxuriantly and produced abundant
fruit (Deut. 33:24).
Lest the productiveness of the soil should
be exhausted, it was enjoined that the whole land should rest every seventh year,
when all agricultural labour would entirely cease (Lev. 25:1-7; Deut. 15:1-10).
It was forbidden to sow a field with divers seeds (Deut. 22:9).
A passer-by was at liberty to eat any quantity of corn or grapes, but he was not
permitted to carry away any (Deut. 23:24, 25; Matt. 12:1). The poor were permitted
to claim the corners of the fields and the gleanings. A forgotten sheaf in the
field was to be left also for the poor. (See Lev. 19:9, 10; Deut. 24:19.)
implements and operations.
The sculptured monuments and painted
tombs of Egypt and Assyria throw much light on this subject, and on the general
operations of agriculture. Ploughs of a simple construction were known in the
time of Moses (Deut. 22:10; comp. Job 1:14). They were very light, and required
great attention to keep them in the ground (Luke 9:62). They were drawn by oxen
(Job 1:14), cows (1 Sam. 6:7), and asses (Isa. 30:24); but an ox and an ass must
not be yoked together in the same plough (Deut. 22:10). Men sometimes followed
the plough with a hoe to break the clods (Isa. 28:24). The oxen were urged on
by a "goad," or long staff pointed at the end, so that if occasion arose it could
be used as a spear also (Judg. 3:31; 1 Sam. 13:21).
When the soil
was prepared, the seed was sown broadcast over the field (Matt. 13:3-8). The "harrow"
mentioned in Job 39:10 was not used to cover the seeds, but to break the clods,
being little more than a thick block of wood. In highly irrigated spots the seed
was trampled in by cattle (Isa. 32:20); but doubtless there was some kind of harrow
also for covering in the seed scattered in the furrows of the field.
reaping of the corn was performed either by pulling it up by the roots, or cutting
it with a species of sickle, according to circumstances. The corn when cut was
generally put up in sheaves (Gen. 37:7; Lev. 23:10-15; Ruth 2:7, 15; Job 24:10;
Jer. 9:22; Micah 4:12), which were afterwards gathered to the threshing-floor
or stored in barns (Matt. 6:26).
The process of threshing was
performed generally by spreading the sheaves on the threshing-floor and causing
oxen and cattle to tread repeatedly over them (Deut. 25:4; Isa. 28:28). On occasions
flails or sticks were used for this purpose (Ruth 2:17; Isa. 28:27). There was
also a "threshing instrument" (Isa. 41:15; Amos 1:3) which was drawn over the
corn. It was called by the Hebrews a moreg, a threshing roller or sledge (2 Sam.
24:22; 1 Chr. 21:23; Isa. 3:15). It was somewhat like the Roman tribulum, or threshing
When the grain was threshed, it was winnowed by being
thrown up against the wind (Jer. 4:11), and afterwards tossed with wooden scoops
(Isa. 30:24). The shovel and the fan for winnowing are mentioned in Ps. 35:5,
Job 21:18, Isa. 17:13. The refuse of straw and chaff was burned (Isa. 5:24). Freed
from impurities, the grain was then laid up in granaries till used (Deut. 28:8;
Prov. 3:10; Matt. 6:26; 13:30; Luke 12:18).
I. - the grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus and Bernice.
The Roman emperor Caligula made him governor first of the territories of Philip,
then of the tetrarchy of Lysanias, with the title of king ("king Herod"), and
finally of that of Antipas, who was banished, and of Samaria and Judea. Thus he
became ruler over the whole of Palestine. He was a persecutor of the early Christians.
He slew James, and imprisoned Peter (Acts 12:1-4). He died at Caesarea, being
"eaten of worms" (Acts 12:23), A.D. 44. (Comp. Josephus, Ant. xix. 8.)
II. - son of the foregoing, was born at Rome, A.D. 27. He was the brother
of Bernice and Drusilla. The Emperor Claudius (A.D. 48) invested him with the
office of superintendent of the Temple of Jerusalem, and made him governor (A.D.
50) of Chalcis. He was afterwards raised to the rank of king, and made governor
over the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias (Acts 25:13; 26:2, 7). It was before
him that Paul delivered (A.D. 59) his speech recorded in Acts 26. His private
life was very profligate. He died (the last of his race) at Rome, at the age of
about seventy years, A.D. 100.
the translation in Lev. 26:16 (R.V., "fever") of the Hebrew word kaddah'ath,
meaning "kindling", i.e., an inflammatory or burning fever. In Deut. 28:22 the
word is rendered "fever."
Agur - gatherer;
the collector, mentioned as author of the sayings in Prov. 30. Nothing is known
of him beyond what is there recorded.
- an exclamation of sorrow or regret (Ps. 35:25; Isa. 1:4, 24; Jer. 1:6; 22:18;
Aha! - an exclamation
of ridicule (Ps. 35:21; 40:15; 70:3). In Isa. 44:16 it signifies joyful surprise,
as also in Job 39:25, R.V.
Ahab - father's
brother. (1.) The son of Omri, whom he succeeded as the seventh king of Israel.
His history is recorded in 1 Kings 16-22. His wife was Jezebel (q.v.), who exercised
a very evil influence over him. To the calf-worship introduced by Jeroboam he
added the worship of Baal. He was severely admonished by Elijah (q.v.) for his
wickedness. His anger was on this account kindled against the prophet, and he
sought to kill him. He undertook three campaigns against Ben-hadad II., king of
Damascus. In the first two, which were defensive, he gained a complete victory
over Ben-hadad, who fell into his hands, and was afterwards released on the condition
of his restoring all the cities of Israel he then held, and granting certain other
concessions to Ahab. After three years of peace, for some cause Ahab renewed war
(1 Kings 22:3) with Ben-hadad by assaulting the city of Ramoth-gilead, although
the prophet Micaiah warned him that he would not succeed, and that the 400 false
prophets who encouraged him were only leading him to his ruin. Micaiah was imprisoned
for thus venturing to dissuade Ahab from his purpose. Ahab went into the battle
disguised, that he might if possible escape the notice of his enemies; but an
arrow from a bow "drawn at a venture" pierced him, and though stayed up in his
chariot for a time he died towards evening, and Elijah's prophecy (1 Kings 21:19)
was fulfilled. He reigned twenty-three years. Because of his idolatry, lust, and
covetousness, Ahab is referred to as pre-eminently the type of a wicked king (2
Kings 8:18; 2 Chr. 22:3; Micah 6:16).
(2.) A false prophet referred
to by Jeremiah (Jer. 29:21), of whom nothing further is known.
- There are three kings designated by this name in Scripture. (1.) The father
of Darius the Mede, mentioned in Dan. 9:1. This was probably the Cyaxares I. known
by this name in profane history, the king of Media and the conqueror of Nineveh.
(2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 4:6, probably the Cambyses of
profane history, the son and successor of Cyrus (B.C. 529).
The son of Darius Hystaspes, the king named in the Book of Esther. He ruled over
the kingdoms of Persia, Media, and Babylonia, "from India to Ethiopia." This was
in all probability the Xerxes of profane history, who succeeded his father Darius
(B.C. 485). In the LXX. version of the Book of Esther the name Artaxerxes occurs
for Ahasuerus. He reigned for twenty-one years (B.C. 486-465). He invaded Greece
with an army, it is said, of more than 2,000,000 soldiers, only 5,000 of whom
returned with him. Leonidas, with his famous 300, arrested his progress at the
Pass of Thermopylae, and then he was defeated disastrously by Themistocles at
Salamis. It was after his return from this invasion that Esther was chosen as
Ahava - water, the river
(Ezra 8:21) by the banks of which the Jewish exiles assembled under Ezra when
about to return to Jerusalem from Babylon. In all probability this was one of
the streams of Mesopotamia which flowed into the Euphrates somewhere in the north-west
of Babylonia. It has, however, been supposed to be the name of a place (Ezra 8:15)
now called Hit, on the Euphrates, east of Damascus.
- possessor. (1.) A grandson of Jonathan (1 Chr. 8:35; 9:42).
The son and successor of Jotham, king of Judah (2 Kings 16; Isa. 7-9; 2 Chr. 28).
He gave himself up to a life of wickedness and idolatry. Notwithstanding the remonstrances
and warnings of Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah, he appealed for help against Rezin,
king of Damascus, and Pekah, king of Israel, who threatened Jerusalem, to Tiglath-pileser,
the king of Assyria, to the great injury of his kingdom and his own humilating
subjection to the Assyrians (2 Kings 16:7, 9; 15:29). He also introduced among
his people many heathen and idolatrous customs (Isa. 8:19; 38:8; 2 Kings 23:12).
He died at the age of thirty-five years, after reigning sixteen years (B.C. 740-724),
and was succeeded by his son Hezekiah. Because of his wickedness he was "not brought
into the sepulchre of the kings."
- held by Jehovah. (1.) The son and successor of Ahab. He followed the counsels
of his mother Jezebel, and imitated in wickedness the ways of his father. In his
reign the Moabites revolted from under his authority (2 Kings 3:5-7). He united
with Jehoshaphat in an attempt to revive maritime trade by the Red Sea, which
proved a failure (2 Chr. 20:35-37). His messengers, sent to consult the god of
Ekron regarding his recovery from the effects of a fall from the roof-gallery
of his palace, were met on the way by Elijah, who sent them back to tell the king
that he would never rise from his bed (1 Kings 22:51; 2 Kings 1:18).
The son of Joram, or Jehoram, and sixth king of Judah. Called Jehoahaz (2 Chr.
21:17; 25:23), and Azariah (2 Chr. 22:6). Guided by his idolatrous mother Athaliah,
his reign was disastrous (2 Kings 8:24-29; 9:29). He joined his uncle Jehoram,
king of Israel, in an expedition against Hazael, king of Damascus; but was wounded
at the pass of Gur when attempting to escape, and had strength only to reach Megiddo,
where he died (2 Kings 9:22-28). He reigned only one year.
- mother's brother, one of David's thirty heroes (2 Sam. 23:33; 1 Chr. 11:35).
Ahiezer - brother of help; i.e., "helpful."
(1.) The chief of the tribe of Dan at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:12; 2:25;
(2.) The chief of the Benjamite slingers that repaired
to David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
- brother (i.e., "friend") of union. (1.) A son of Bela, the son of Benjamin
(1 Chr. 8:7).
(2.) Name different in Hebrew, meaning brother of
Judah. Chief of the tribe of Asher; one of those appointed by Moses to superintend
the division of Canaan among the tribe (Num. 34:27).
- brother (i.e., "friend") of Jehovah. (1.) One of the sons of Bela (1 Chr.
8:7, R.V.). In A.V. called "Ahiah."
(2.) One of the five sons
of Jerahmeel, who was great-grandson of Judah (1 Chr. 2:25).
Son of Ahitub (1 Sam. 14:3, 18), Ichabod's brother; the same probably as Ahimelech,
who was high priest at Nob in the reign of Saul (1 Sam. 22:11). Some, however,
suppose that Ahimelech was the brother of Ahijah, and that they both officiated
as high priests, Ahijah at Gibeah or Kirjath-jearim, and Ahimelech at Nob.
A Pelonite, one of David's heroes (1 Chr. 11:36); called also Eliam (2 Sam. 23:34).
(5.) A Levite having charge of the sacred treasury in the temple
(1 Chr. 26:20).
(6.) One of Solomon's secretaries (1 Kings 4:3).
(7.) A prophet of Shiloh (1 Kings 11:29; 14:2), called the "Shilonite,"
in the days of Rehoboam. We have on record two of his remarkable prophecies, 1
Kings 11:31-39, announcing the rending of the ten tribes from Solomon; and 1 Kings
14:6-16, delivered to Jeroboam's wife, foretelling the death of Abijah the king's
son, the destruction of Jeroboam's house, and the captivity of Israel "beyond
the river." Jeroboam bears testimony to the high esteem in which he was held as
a prophet of God (1 Kings 14:2,3).
- brother of support = helper, one of the five whom Josiah sent to consult
the prophetess Huldah in connection with the discovery of the book of the law
(2 Kings 22:12-14; 2 Chr. 34:20). He was the son of Shaphan, the royal secretary,
and the father of Gedaliah, governor of Judea after the destruction of Jerusalem
by the Babylonians (2 Kings 25:22; Jer. 40:5-16; 43:6). On one occasion he protected
Jeremiah against the fury of Jehoiakim (Jer. 26:24). It was in the chamber of
another son (Germariah) of Shaphan that Baruch read in the ears of all the people
Ahimaaz - brother
of anger = irascible. (1.) The father Ahinoam, the wife of Saul (1 Sam. 14:50).
(2.) The son and successor of Zadok in the office of high priest
(1 Chr. 6:8, 53). On the occasion of the revolt of Absalom he remained faithful
to David, and was of service to him in conveying to him tidings of the proceedings
of Absalom in Jerusalem (2 Sam. 15:24-37; 17:15-21). He was swift of foot, and
was the first to carry to David tidings of the defeat of Absalom, although he
refrained, from delicacy of feeling, from telling him of his death (2 Sam. 18:19-33).
Ahiman - brother of a gift = liberal.
(1.) One of the three giant Anakim brothers whom Caleb and the spies saw in Mount
Hebron (Num. 13:22) when they went in to explore the land. They were afterwards
driven out and slain (Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10).
(2.) One of the
guardians of the temple after the Exile (1 Chr. 9:17).
- brother of the king, the son of Ahitub and father of Abiathar (1 Sam. 22:20-23).
He descended from Eli in the line of Ithamar. In 1 Chr. 18:16 he is called Abimelech,
and is probably the same as Ahiah (1 Sam. 14:3, 18). He was the twelfth high priest,
and officiated at Nob, where he was visited by David (to whom and his companions
he gave five loaves of the showbread) when he fled from Saul (1 Sam. 21:1-9).
He was summoned into Saul's presence, and accused, on the information of Doeg
the Edomite, of disloyalty because of his kindness to David; whereupon the king
commanded that he, with the other priests who stood beside him (86 in all), should
be put to death. This sentence was carried into execution by Doeg in the most
cruel manner (1 Sam. 22:9-23). Possibly Abiathar had a son also called Ahimelech,
or the two names, as some think, may have been accidentally transposed in 2 Sam.
8:17; 1 Chr. 18:16, marg.; 24:3, 6, 31.
- brother of liberality = liberal, one of the twelve commissariat officers
appointed by Solomon in so many districts of his kingdom to raise supplies by
monthly rotation for his household. He was appointed to the district of Mahanaim
(1 Kings 4:14), east of Jordan.
- brother of pleasantness = pleasant. (1.) The daughter of Ahimaaz, and wife
of Saul (1 Sam. 14:50).
(2.) A Jezreelitess, the first wife of
David (1 Sam. 25:43; 27:3). She was the mother of Amnon (2 Sam. 3:2). (See 1 Sam.
30:5, 18; 2 Sam. 2:2.)
Ahio - brotherly.
(1.) One of the sons of Beriah (1 Chr. 8:14).
(2.) One of the
sons of Jehiel the Gibeonite (1 Chr. 8:31; 9:37).
(3.) One of
the sons of Abinadab the Levite. While Uzzah went by the side of the ark, he walked
before it guiding the oxen which drew the cart on which it was carried, after
having brought it from his father's house in Gibeah (1 Chr. 13:7; 2 Sam. 6:3,
Ahira - brother of evil = unlucky,
or my brother is friend, chief of the tribe of Naphtali at the Exodus (Num. 1:15;
Ahishar - brother of song =
singer, the officer who was "over the household" of Solomon (1 Kings 4:6).
- brother of insipidity or impiety, a man greatly renowned for his sagacity
among the Jews. At the time of Absalom's revolt he deserted David (Ps. 41:9; 55:12-14)
and espoused the cause of Absalom (2 Sam. 15:12). David sent his old friend Hushai
back to Absalom, in order that he might counteract the counsel of Ahithophel (2
Sam. 15:31-37). This end was so far gained that Ahithophel saw he had no longer
any influence, and accordingly he at once left the camp of Absalom and returned
to Giloh, his native place, where, after arranging his wordly affairs, he hanged
himself, and was buried in the sepulchre of his fathers (2 Sam. 17:1-23). He was
the type of Judas (Ps. 41:9).
brother of goodness = good. (1.) The son of Phinehas. On the death of his
grandfather Eli he succeeded to the office of high priest, and was himself succeeded
by his son Ahijah (1 Sam. 14:3; 22:9, 11, 12, 20).
(2.) The father
of Zadok, who was made high priest by Saul after the extermination of the family
of Ahimelech (1 Chr. 6:7, 8; 2 Sam. 8:17).
- fatness, a town of Asher lying within the unconquered Phoenician border
(Judg. 1:31), north-west of the Sea of Galilee; commonly identified with Giscala,
Ahoah - brotherly, one
of the sons of Bela, the son of Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:4). He is also called Ahiah
(ver. 7) and Iri (1 Chr. 7:7). His descendants were called Ahohites (2 Sam. 23:9,
Ahohite - an epithet applied
to Dodo, one of Solomon's captains (1 Chr. 27:4); to his son Eleazar, one of David's
three mightiest heroes (2 Sam. 23:9; 1 Chr. 11:12); and to Zalmon, one of the
thirty (2 Sam. 23:28; 1 Chr. 11:29), from their descent from Ahoah.
- she has her own tent, a name used by Ezekiel (23:4, 5, 36, 44) as a symbol
of the idolatry of the kingdom of Israel. This kingdom is described as a lewdwoman,
an adulteress, given up to the abominations and idolatries of the Egyptians and
Assyrians. Because of her crimes, she was carried away captive, and ceased to
be a kingdom. (Comp. Ps. 78:67-69; 1 Kings 12:25-33; 2 Chr. 11:13-16.)
- tent of the father, an artist of the tribe of Dan, appointed to the work
of preparing materials for the tabernacle (Ex. 31:6; 35:34; 36:1, 2; 38:23).
- my tent is in her, the name of an imaginary harlot, applied symbolically
to Jerusalem, because she had abandoned the worship of the true God and given
herself up to the idolatries of foreign nations. (Ezek. 23:4, 11, 22, 36, 44).
Aholibamah - tent of the height, the
name given to Judith, the daughter of Beeri = Anah (Gen. 26:34; 36:2), when she
became the wife of Esau. A district among the mountains of Edom, probably near
Mount Hor, was called after her name, or it may be that she received her name
from the district. From her descended three tribes of Edomites, founded by her
Ai - ruins. (1.) One of
the royal cities of the Canaanites (Josh. 10:1; Gen. 12:8; 13:3). It was the scene
of Joshua's defeat, and afterwards of his victory. It was the second Canaanite
city taken by Israel (Josh. 7:2-5; 8:1-29). It lay rebuilt and inhibited by the
Benjamites (Ezra 2:28; Neh. 7:32; 11:31). It lay to the east of Bethel, "beside
Beth-aven." The spot which is most probably the site of this ancient city is Haiyan,
2 miles east from Bethel. It lay up the Wady Suweinit, a steep, rugged valley,
extending from the Jordan valley to Bethel.
(2.) A city in the
Ammonite territory (Jer. 49:3). Some have thought that the proper reading of the
word is Ar (Isa. 15:1).
- hind of the dawn, a name found in the title of Ps. 22. It is probably the
name of some song or tune to the measure of which the psalm was to be chanted.
Some, however, understand by the name some instrument of music, or an allegorical
allusion to the subject of the psalm.
- the atmosphere, as opposed to the higher regions of the sky (1 Thess. 4:17;
Rev. 9:2; 16:17). This word occurs once as the rendering of the Hebrew ruah
(Job 41:16); elsewhere it is the rendering of shamaiyim, usually translated
The expression "to speak into the air" (1 Cor. 14:9)
is a proverb denoting to speak in vain, as to "beat the air" (1 Cor. 9:26) denotes
to labour in vain.
Ajalon - and Aij'alon,
place of deer. (1.) A town and valley originally assigned to the tribe of Dan,
from which, however, they could not drive the Amorites (Judg. 1:35). It was one
of the Levitical cities given to the Kohathites (1 Chr. 6:69). It was not far
from Beth-shemesh (2 Chr. 28:18). It was the boundary between the kingdoms of
Judah and Israel, and is frequently mentioned in Jewish history (2 Chr. 11:10;
1 Sam. 14:31; 1 Chr. 8:13). With reference to the valley named after the town,
Joshua uttered the celebrated command, "Sun, stand thou still on Gibeon; and thou,
Moon, in the valley of Ajalon" (Josh. 10:12). It has been identified as the modern
Yalo, at the foot of the Beth-horon pass (q.v.). In the Tell Amarna letters Adoni-zedek
(q.v.) speaks of the destruction of the "city of Ajalon" by the invaders, and
describes himself as "afflicted, greatly afflicted" by the calamities that had
come on the land, urging the king of Egypt to hasten to his help.
A city in the tribe of Zebulun (Judg. 12:12), the modern Jalun, three miles north
Akkub - (another form of
Jacob). (1.) The head of one of the families of Nethinim (Ezra 2:45).
A Levite who kept the gate of the temple after the return from Babylon (1 Chr.
9:17; Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45).
(3.) A descendant of David (1 Chr.
Akrabbim - scorpions, probably
the general name given to the ridge containing the pass between the south of the
Dead Sea and Zin, es-Sufah, by which there is an ascent to the level of the land
of Palestine. Scorpions are said to abound in this whole district, and hence the
name (Num. 34:4). It is called "Maaleh-acrabbim" in Josh. 15:3, and "the ascent
of Akrabbim" in Num. 34:4.
occurs only in the New Testament in connection with the box of "ointment of
spikenard very precious," with the contents of which a woman anointed the head
of Jesus as he sat at supper in the house of Simon the leper (Matt. 26:7; Mark
14:3; Luke 7:37). These boxes were made from a stone found near Alabastron in
Egypt, and from this circumstance the Greeks gave them the name of the city where
they were made. The name was then given to the stone of which they were made;
and finally to all perfume vessels, of whatever material they were formed. The
woman "broke" the vessel; i.e., she broke off, as was usually done, the long and
narrow neck so as to reach the contents. This stone resembles marble, but is softer
in its texture, and hence very easily wrought into boxes. Mark says (14:5) that
this box of ointment was worth more than 300 pence, i.e., denarii, each of the
value of sevenpence halfpenny of our money, and therefore worth about 10 pounds.
But if we take the denarius as the day's wage of a labourer (Matt. 20:2), say
two shillings of our money, then the whole would be worth about 30 pounds, so
costly was Mary's offering.
virgins, a musical term (1 Chr. 15:20), denoting that the psalm which bears
this inscription (Ps. 46) was to be sung by soprano or female voices.
- a particular quivering sound of the silver trumpets to give warning to the
Hebrews on their journey through the wilderness (Num. 10:5, 6), a call to arms,
or a war-note (Jer. 4:19; 49:2; Zeph. 1:16).
- covering. (1.) One of the nine sons of Becher, the son of Benjamin (1 Chr.
(2.) One of the sons of Jehoadah, or Jarah, son of Ahaz
(1 Chr. 8:36).
(3.) A sacerdotal city of Benjamin (1 Chr. 6:60),
called also Almon (Josh. 21:18), now Almit, a mile north-east of the ancient Anathoth.
Alexander - man-defender. (1.) A relative
of Annas the high priest, present when Peter and John were examined before the
Sanhedrim (Acts 4:6).
(2.) A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian,
bore the cross of Christ (Mark 15:21).
(3.) A Jew of Ephesus who
took a prominent part in the uproar raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts
19:33). The Jews put him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It was probably
intended that he should show that he and the other Jews had no sympathy with Paul
any more than the Ephesians had. It is possible that this man was the same as
(4.) A coppersmith who, with Hymenaeus and others,
promulgated certain heresies regarding the resurrection (1 Tim. 1:19; 2 Tim. 4:14),
and made shipwreck of faith and of a good conscience. Paul excommunicated him
(1 Tim. 1:20; comp. 1 Cor. 5:5).
the Great - the king of Macedonia, the great conqueror; probably represented
in Daniel by the "belly of brass" (Dan. 2:32), and the leopard and the he-goat
(7:6; 11:3,4). He succeeded his father Philip, and died at the age of thirty-two
from the effects of intemperance, B.C. 323. His empire was divided among his four
Alexandria - the ancient
metropolis of Lower Egypt, so called from its founder, Alexander the Great (about
B.C. 333). It was for a long period the greatest of existing cities, for both
Nineveh and Babylon had been destroyed, and Rome had not yet risen to greatness.
It was the residence of the kings of Egypt for 200 years. It is not mentioned
in the Old Testament, and only incidentally in the New. Apollos, eloquent and
mighty in the Scriptures, was a native of this city (Acts 18:24). Many Jews from
Alexandria were in Jerusalem, where they had a synagogue (Acts 6:9), at the time
of Stephen's martyrdom. At one time it is said that as many as 10,000 Jews resided
in this city. It possessed a famous library of 700,000 volumes, which was burned
by the Saracens (A.D. 642). It was here that the Hebrew Bible was translated into
Greek. This is called the Septuagint version, from the tradition that seventy
learned men were engaged in executing it. It was, however, not all translated
at one time. It was begun B.C. 280, and finished about B.C. 200 or 150. (See VERSION.)
- (2 Chr. 2:8; 9:10,11), the same as almug (1 Kings 10:11).
- a foreigner, or person born in another country, and therefore not entitled
to the rights and privileges of the country where he resides. Among the Hebrews
there were two classes of aliens.
(1.) Those who were strangers
generally, and who owned no landed property.
(2.) Strangers dwelling
in another country without being naturalized (Lev. 22:10; Ps. 39:12).
of these classes were to enjoy, under certain conditions, the same rights as other
citizens (Lev. 19:33, 34; Deut. 10:19). They might be naturalized and permitted
to enter into the congregation of the Lord by submitting to circumcision and abandoning
idolatry (Deut. 23:3-8).
This term is used (Eph. 2:12) to denote
persons who have no interest in Christ.
- used only in Gal. 4:24, where the apostle refers to the history of Isaac
the free-born, and Ishmael the slave-born, and makes use of it allegorically.
Every parable is an allegory. Nathan (2 Sam. 12:1-4) addresses
David in an allegorical narrative. In the eightieth Psalm there is a beautiful
allegory: "Thou broughtest a vine out of Egypt," etc. In Eccl. 12:2-6, there is
a striking allegorical description of old age.
- the Greek form (Rev. 19:1, 3, 4, 6) of the Hebrew Hallelujah = Praise ye
Jehovah, which begins or ends several of the psalms (106, 111, 112, 113, etc.).
Alliance - a treaty between nations,
or between individuals, for their mutual advantage.
an alliance with some of the Canaanitish princes (Gen. 14:13), also with Abimelech
(21:22-32). Joshua and the elders of Israel entered into an alliance with the
Gibeonites (Josh. 9:3-27). When the Israelites entered Palestine they were forbidden
to enter into alliances with the inhabitants of the country (Lev. 18:3, 4; 20:22,
Solomon formed a league with Hiram (1 Kings 5:12). This "brotherly
covenant" is referred to 250 years afterwards (Amos 1:9). He also appears to have
entered into an alliance with Pharaoh (1 Kings 10:28, 29).
the subsequent history of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel various alliances were
formed between them and also with neighbouring nations at different times.
patriarchal times a covenant of alliance was sealed by the blood of some sacrificial
victim. The animal sacrificed was cut in two (except birds), and between these
two parts the persons contracting the alliance passed (Gen. 15:10). There are
frequent allusions to this practice (Jer. 34:18). Such alliances were called "covenants
of salt" (Num. 18:19; 2 Chr. 13:5), salt being the symbol of perpetuity. A pillar
was set up as a memorial of the alliance between Laban and Jacob (Gen. 31:52).
The Jews throughout their whole history attached great importance to fidelity
to their engagements. Divine wrath fell upon the violators of them (Josh. 9:18;
2 Sam. 21:1, 2; Ezek. 17:16).
oak. (1.) The expression in the Authorized Version of Josh. 19:33, "from Allon
to Zaanannim," is more correctly rendered in the Revised Version, "from the oak
in Zaanannim." The word denotes some remarkable tree which stood near Zaanannim,
and which served as a landmark.
(2.) The son of Jedaiah, of the
family of the Simeonites, who expelled the Hamites from the valley of Gedor (1
Allon-bachuth - oak of
weeping, a tree near Bethel, at the spot where Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried
(Gen. 35:8). Large trees, from their rarity in the plains of Palestine, were frequently
designated as landmarks. This particular tree was probably the same as the "palm
tree of Deborah" (Judg. 4:5).
- immeasurable, the first named of the sons of Joktan (Gen. 10:26), the founder
of an Arabian tribe.
Almon - hidden,
one of the sacerdotal cities of Benjamin (Josh. 21:18), called also Alemeth (1
Almond - a native of Syria
and Palestine. In form, blossoms, and fruit it resembles the peach tree. Its blossoms
are of a very pale pink colour, and appear before its leaves. Its Hebrew name,
shaked, signifying "wakeful, hastening," is given to it on account of its
putting forth its blossoms so early, generally in February, and sometimes even
in January. In Eccl. 12:5, it is referred to as illustrative, probably, of the
haste with which old age comes. There are others, however, who still contend for
the old interpretation here. "The almond tree bears its blossoms in the midst
of winter, on a naked, leafless stem, and these blossoms (reddish or flesh-coloured
in the beginning) seem at the time of their fall exactly like white snow-flakes.
In this way the almond blossom is a very fitting symbol of old age, with its silvery
hair and its wintry, dry, barren, unfruitful condition." In Jer. 1:11 "I see a
rod of an almond tree [shaked]...for I will hasten [shaked] my word to perform
it" the word is used as an emblem of promptitude. Jacob desired his sons (Gen.
43:11) to take with them into Egypt of the best fruits of the land, almonds, etc.,
as a present to Joseph, probably because this tree was not a native of Egypt.
Aaron's rod yielded almonds (Num. 17:8; Heb. 9:4). Moses was directed to make
certain parts of the candlestick for the ark of carved work "like unto almonds"
(Ex. 25:33, 34). The Hebrew word luz, translated "hazel" in the Authorized
Version (Gen. 30:37), is rendered in the Revised Version "almond." It is probable
that luz denotes the wild almond, while shaked denotes the cultivated
Alms - Not found in the Old
Testament, but repeatedly in the New. The Mosaic legislation (Lev. 25:35; Deut.
15:7) tended to promote a spirit of charity, and to prevent the occurrence of
destitution among the people. Such passages as these, Ps. 41:1; 112:9; Prov. 14:31;
Isa. 10:2; Amos 2:7; Jer. 5:28; Ezek. 22:29, would also naturally foster the same
In the time of our Lord begging was common
(Mark 10:46; Acts 3:2). The Pharisees were very ostentatious in their almsgivings
(Matt. 6:2). The spirit by which the Christian ought to be actuated in this duty
is set forth in 1 John 3:17. A regard to the state of the poor and needy is enjoined
as a Christian duty (Luke 3:11; 6:30; Matt. 6:1; Acts 9:36; 10:2, 4), a duty which
was not neglected by the early Christians (Luke 14:13; Acts 20:35; Gal. 2:10;
Rom. 15:25-27; 1 Cor. 16:1-4). They cared not only for the poor among themselves,
but contributed also to the necessities of those at a distance (Acts 11:29; 24:17;
2 Cor. 9:12). Our Lord and his attendants showed an example also in this (John
In modern times the "poor-laws" have introduced an element
which modifies considerably the form in which we may discharge this Christian
Almug - (1 Kings 10:11, 12)
= algum (2 Chr. 2:8; 9:10, 11), in the Hebrew occurring only in the plural almuggim
(indicating that the wood was brought in planks), the name of a wood brought from
Ophir to be used in the building of the temple, and for other purposes. Some suppose
it to have been the white sandal-wood of India, the Santalum album of botanists,
a native of the mountainous parts of the Malabar coasts. It is a fragrant wood,
and is used in China for incense in idol-worship. Others, with some probability,
think that it was the Indian red sandal-wood, the pterocarpus santalinus, a heavy,
fine-grained wood, the Sanscrit name of which is valguka. It is found on the Coromandel
coast and in Ceylon.
Aloes - (Heb.
'ahalim), a fragrant wood (Num. 24:6; Ps. 45:8; Prov. 7:17; Cant. 4:14), the Aquilaria
agallochum of botanists, or, as some suppose, the costly gum or perfume extracted
from the wood. It is found in China, Siam, and Northern India, and grows to the
height sometimes of 120 feet. This species is of great rarity even in India. There
is another and more common species, called by Indians aghil, whence Europeans
have given it the name of Lignum aquile, or eagle-wood. Aloewood was used by the
Egyptians for embalming dead bodies. Nicodemus brought it (pounded aloe-wood)
to embalm the body of Christ (John 19:39); but whether this was the same as that
mentioned elsewhere is uncertain.
The bitter aloes of the apothecary
is the dried juice of the leaves Aloe vulgaris.
- (1.) The father of James the Less, the apostle and writer of the epistle
(Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13), and the husband of Mary (John 19:25).
The Hebrew form of this name is Cleopas, or Clopas (q.v.).
The father of Levi, or Matthew (Mark 2:14).
- (Heb. mizbe'ah, from a word meaning "to slay"), any structure of earth (Ex.
20:24) or unwrought stone (20:25) on which sacrifices were offered. Altars were
generally erected in conspicuous places (Gen. 22:9; Ezek. 6:3; 2 Kings 23:12;
16:4; 23:8; Acts 14:13). The word is used in Heb. 13:10 for the sacrifice offered
upon it--the sacrifice Christ offered.
Paul found among the many
altars erected in Athens one bearing the inscription, "To the unknown God" (Acts
17:23), or rather "to an [i.e., some] unknown God." The reason for this inscription
cannot now be accurately determined. It afforded the apostle the occasion of proclaiming
the gospel to the "men of Athens."
The first altar we read of
is that erected by Noah (Gen. 8:20). Altars were erected by Abraham (Gen. 12:7;
13:4; 22:9), by Isaac (Gen. 26:25), by Jacob (33:20; 35:1, 3), and by Moses (Ex.
In the tabernacle, and afterwards in
the temple, two altars were erected.
(1.) The altar of burnt offering
(Ex. 30:28), called also the "brasen altar" (Ex. 39:39) and "the table of the
Lord" (Mal. 1:7).
This altar, as erected in the tabernacle, is
described in Ex. 27:1-8. It was a hollow square, 5 cubits in length and in breadth,
and 3 cubits in height. It was made of shittim wood, and was overlaid with plates
of brass. Its corners were ornamented with "horns" (Ex. 29:12; Lev. 4:18).
Ex. 27:3 the various utensils appertaining to the altar are enumerated. They were
made of brass. (Comp. 1 Sam. 2:13, 14; Lev. 16:12; Num. 16:6, 7.)
Solomon's temple the altar was of larger dimensions (2 Chr. 4:1. Comp. 1 Kings
8:22, 64; 9:25), and was made wholly of brass, covering a structure of stone or
earth. This altar was renewed by Asa (2 Chr. 15:8). It was removed by Ahaz (2
Kings 16:14), and "cleansed" by Hezekiah, in the latter part of whose reign it
was rebuilt. It was finally broken up and carried away by the Babylonians (Jer.
After the return from captivity it was re-erected (Ezra
3:3, 6) on the same place where it had formerly stood. (Comp. 1 Macc. 4:47.) When
Antiochus Epiphanes pillaged Jerusalem the altar of burnt offering was taken away.
Again the altar was erected by Herod, and remained in its place
till the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (70 A.D.).
fire on the altar was not permitted to go out (Lev. 6:9).
Mosque of Omar, immediately underneath the great dome, which occupies the site
of the old temple, there is a rough projection of the natural rock, of about 60
feet in its extreme length, and 50 in its greatest breadth, and in its highest
part about 4 feet above the general pavement. This rock seems to have been left
intact when Solomon's temple was built. It was in all probability the site of
the altar of burnt offering. Underneath this rock is a cave, which may probably
have been the granary of Araunah's threshing-floor (1 Chr. 21:22).
The altar of incense (Ex. 30:1-10), called also "the golden altar" (39:38; Num.
4:11), stood in the holy place "before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony."
On this altar sweet spices were continually burned with fire taken from the brazen
altar. The morning and the evening services were commenced by the high priest
offering incense on this altar. The burning of the incense was a type of prayer
(Ps. 141:2; Rev. 5:8; 8:3, 4).
This altar was a small movable
table, made of acacia wood overlaid with gold (Ex. 37:25, 26). It was 1 cubit
in length and breadth, and 2 cubits in height.
In Solomon's temple
the altar was similar in size, but was made of cedar-wood (1 Kings 6:20; 7:48)
overlaid with gold. In Ezek. 41:22 it is called "the altar of wood." (Comp. Ex.
In the temple built after the Exile the altar was restored.
Antiochus Epiphanes took it away, but it was afterwards restored by Judas Maccabaeus
(1 Macc. 1:23; 4:49). Among the trophies carried away by Titus on the destruction
of Jerusalem the altar of incense is not found, nor is any mention made of it
in Heb. 9. It was at this altar Zacharias ministered when an angel appeared to
him (Luke 1:11). It is the only altar which appears in the heavenly temple (Isa.
6:6; Rev. 8:3,4).
Altaschith - destroy
not, the title of Ps. 57, 58, 59, and 75. It was probably the name of some song
to the melody of which these psalms were to be chanted.
- one of the places, the last before Rephidim, at which the Hebrews rested
on their way to Sinai (Num. 33:13, 14). It was probably situated on the shore
of the Red Sea.
Amalek - dweller in
a valley, the son of Eliphaz and grandson of Esau (Gen. 36:12; 1 Chr. 1:36); the
chief of an Idumean tribe (Gen. 36:16). His mother was a Horite, a tribe whose
territory the descendants of Esau had seized.
- a tribe that dwelt in Arabia Petraea, between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea.
They were not the descendants of Amalek, the son of Eliphaz, for they existed
in the days of Abraham (Gen. 14:7). They were probably a tribe that migrated from
the shores of the Persian Gulf and settled in Arabia. "They dwelt in the land
of the south...from Havilah until thou comest to Shur" (Num. 13:29; 1 Sam. 15:7).
They were a pastoral, and hence a nomadic race. Their kings bore the hereditary
name of Agag (Num. 24:7; 1 Sam. 15:8). They attempted to stop the Israelites when
they marched through their territory (Deut. 25:18), attacking them at Rephidim
(Ex. 17:8-13; comp. Deut. 25:17; 1 Sam. 15:2). They afterwards attacked the Israelites
at Hormah (Num. 14:45). We read of them subsequently as in league with the Moabites
(Judg. 3:13) and the Midianites (Judg. 6:3). Saul finally desolated their territory
and destroyed their power (1 Sam. 14:48; 15:3), and David recovered booty from
them (1 Sam. 30:18-20). In the Babylonian inscriptions they are called Sute, in
those of Egypt Sittiu, and the Amarna tablets include them under the general name
of Khabbati, or "plunderers."
perennial. (1.) The Hebrew margin of 2 Kings 5:12 gives this as another reading
of Abana (q.v.), a stream near Damascus.
(2.) A mountain (Cant.
4:8), probably the southern summit of Anti-Libanus, at the base of which are the
sources of the Abana.
Amariah - said
by Jehovah. (1.) One of the descendants of Aaron by Eleazar (1 Chr. 6:7,52). He
was probably the last of the high priests of Eleazar's line prior to the transfer
of that office to Eli, of the line of Ithamar.
(2.) A Levite,
son of Hebron, of the lineage of Moses (1 Chr. 23:19; 24:23).
A "chief priest" who took an active part in the reformation under Jehoshaphat
(2 Chr. 19:11); probably the same as mentioned in 1 Chr. 6:9.
1 Chr. 6:11; Ezra 7:3. (5.) One of the high priests in the time of Hezekiah (2
Chr. 31:15). (6.) Zeph. 1:1. (7.) Neh. 11:4. (8.) Neh. 10:3. (9.) Ezra 10:42.
Amasa - burden. (1.) The son of Abigail,
a sister of king David (1 Chr. 2:17; 2 Sam. 17:25). He was appointed by David
to command the army in room of his cousin Joab (2 Sam. 19:13), who afterwards
treacherously put him to death as a dangerous rival (2 Sam. 20:4-12).
A son of Hadlai, and chief of Ephraim (2 Chr. 28:12) in the reign of Ahaz.
- burdensome. (1.) A Levite, son of Elkanah, of the ancestry of Samuel (1
Chr. 6:25, 35).
(2.) The leader of a body of men who joined David
in the "stronghold," probably of Adullam (1 Chr. 12:18).
One of the priests appointed to precede the ark with blowing of trumpets on its
removal from the house of Obed-edom (1 Chr. 15:24).
(4.) The father
of a Levite, one of the two Kohathites who took a prominent part at the instance
of Hezekiah in the cleansing of the temple (2 Chr. 29:12).
- the son of Azareel, appointed by Nehemiah to reside at Jerusalem and do
the work of the temple (Neh. 11:13).
- burden of (i.e., "sustained by") Jehovah, the "son of Zichri, who willingly
offered himself unto the Lord," a captain over thousands under Jehoshaphat (2
Chr. 17:16; comp. Judg. 5:9).
- strengthened by Jehovah. (1.) A Levite, son of Hilkiah, of the descendants
of Ethan the Merarite (1 Chr. 6:45).
(2.) The son and successor
of Joash, and eighth king of the separate kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 14:1-4). He
began his reign by punishing the murderers of his father (5-7; 2 Chr. 25:3-5).
He was the first to employ a mercenary army of 100,000 Israelite soldiers, which
he did in his attempt to bring the Edomites again under the yoke of Judah (2 Chr.
25:5, 6). He was commanded by a prophet of the Lord to send back the mercenaries,
which he did (2 Chr. 25:7-10, 13), much to their annoyance. His obedience to this
command was followed by a decisive victory over the Edomites (2 Chr. 25:14-16).
Amaziah began to worship some of the idols he took from the Edomites, and this
was his ruin, for he was vanquished by Joash, king of Israel, whom he challenged
to battle. The disaster he thus brought upon Judah by his infatuation in proclaiming
war against Israel probably occasioned the conspiracy by which he lost his life
(2 Kings 14:8-14, 19). He was slain at Lachish, whither he had fled, and his body
was brought upon horses to Jerusalem, where it was buried in the royal sepulchre
(2 Kings 14:19, 20; 2 Chr. 25:27, 28).
(3.) A priest of the golden
calves at Bethel (Amos 7:10-17).
(4.) The father of Joshah, one
of the Simeonite chiefs in the time of Hezekiah (1 Chr. 4:34).
- In the Old Testament the Hebrew word tsir, meaning "one who goes
on an errand," is rendered thus (Josh. 9:4; Prov. 13:17; Isa. 18:2; Jer. 49:14;
Obad. 1:1). This is also the rendering of melits, meaning "an interpreter,"
in 2 Chr. 32:31; and of malak, a "messenger," in 2 Chr. 35:21; Isa. 30:4;
33:7; Ezek. 17:15. This is the name used by the apostle as designating those who
are appointed by God to declare his will (2 Cor. 5:20; Eph. 6:20).
Hebrews on various occasions and for various purposes had recourse to the services
of ambassadors, e.g., to contract alliances (Josh. 9:4), to solicit favours (Num.
20:14), to remonstrate when wrong was done (Judg. 11:12), to condole with a young
king on the death of his father (2 Sam. 10:2), and to congratulate a king on his
accession to the throne (1 Kings 5:1).
To do injury to an ambassador
was to insult the king who sent him (2 Sam. 10:5).
- (Ezek. 1:4, 27; 8:2. Heb., hashmal, rendered by the LXX. elektron, and by
the Vulgate electrum), a metal compounded of silver and gold. Some translate the
word by "polished brass," others "fine brass," as in Rev. 1:15; 2:18. It was probably
the mixture now called electrum. The word has no connection, however, with what
is now called amber, which is a gummy substance, reckoned as belonging to the
mineral kingdom though of vegetable origin, a fossil resin.
If you want to talk with someone in person, please feel free to call 212-864-5436
The Rev. Charles P. Henderson is a Presbyterian minister and
Executive Director of CrossCurrents.
He is the author of God and Science (John Knox Press, 1986).
A revised and expanded version of the book is appearing here. God and Science (Hypertext Edition,
He is also editor of a new book, featuring articles by world class scientists and theologians, and illustrating the leading views on the relationship between science and religion: Faith, Science and the Future (CrossCurrents Press, 2007).
Charles also tracks the boundry between the virtual and the real at his blog: Next World Design, focusing on the mediation of art, science and spirituality in the metaverse.