Jehdeiah - rejoicer in Jehovah. (1.) One of the
Levitical attendants at the temple, a descendant of Shubael (1 Chr. 24:20).
(2.) A Meronothite, herdsman of the asses under David and Solomon (1 Chr.
Jehiel - God's living one. (1.) The father of Gibeon
(1 Chr. 9:35).
(2.) One of David's guard (1 Chr. 11:44).
(3.) One of the Levites "of the second degree," appointed to conduct the
music on the occasion of the ark's being removed to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:18,
(4.) A Hachmonite, a tutor in the family of David toward the close of his
reign (1 Chr. 27:32).
(5.) The second of Jehoshaphat's six sons (2 Chr. 21:2).
(6.) One of the Levites of the family of Heman who assisted Hezekiah in his
work of reformation (2 Chr. 29:14).
(7.) A "prince" and "ruler of the house of God" who contributed liberally to
the renewal of the temple sacrifices under Josiah (2 Chr. 35:8).
(8.) The father of Obadiah (Ezra 8:9).
(9.) One of the "sons" of Elam (Ezra 10:26).
(10.) Ezra 10:21.
Jehizkiah - Jehovah strengthens, one of the chiefs of
Ephraim (2 Chr. 28:12).
Jehoaddan - Jehovah his ornament, the wife of King
Jehoash, and mother of King Amaziah (2 Kings 14:2).
Jehoahaz - Jehovah his sustainer, or he whom Jehovah
holdeth. (1.) The youngest son of Jehoram, king of Judah (2 Chr. 21:17; 22:1, 6,
8, 9); usually Ahaziah (q.v.).
(2.) The son and successor of Jehu, king of Israel (2 Kings 10:35). He
reigned seventeen years, and followed the evil ways of the house of Jeroboam.
The Syrians, under Hazael and Benhadad, prevailed over him, but were at length
driven out of the land by his son Jehoash (13:1-9, 25).
(3.) Josiah's third son, usually called Shallum (1 Chr. 3:15). He succeeded
his father on the throne, and reigned over Judah for three months (2 Kings
23:31, 34). He fell into the idolatrous ways of his predecessors (23:32), was
deposed by Pharaoh-Necho from the throne, and carried away prisoner into Egypt,
where he died in captivity (23:33, 34; Jer. 22:10-12; 2 Chr. 36:1-4).
Jehoash - Jehovah-given. (1.) The son of King
Ahaziah. While yet an infant, he was saved from the general massacre of the
family by his aunt Jehosheba, and was apparently the only surviving descendant
of Solomon (2 Chr. 21:4, 17). His uncle, the high priest Jehoiada, brought him
forth to public notice when he was eight years of age, and crowned and anointed
him king of Judah with the usual ceremonies. Athaliah was taken by surprise when
she heard the shout of the people, "Long live the king;" and when she appeared
in the temple, Jehoiada commanded her to be led forth to death (2 Kings
11:13-20). While the high priest lived, Jehoash favoured the worship of God and
observed the law; but on his death he fell away into evil courses, and the land
was defiled with idolatry. Zechariah, the son and successor of the high priest,
was put to death. These evil deeds brought down on the land the judgement of
God, and it was oppressed by the Syrian invaders. He is one of the three kings
omitted by Matthew (1:8) in the genealogy of Christ, the other two being Ahaziah
and Amaziah. He was buried in the city of David (2 Kings 12:21). (See JOASH
(2.) The son and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Israel (2 Kings 14:1; comp.
12:1; 13:10). When he ascended the throne the kingdom was suffering from the
invasion of the Syrians. Hazael "was cutting Israel short." He tolerated the
worship of the golden calves, yet seems to have manifested a character of
sincere devotion to the God of his fathers. He held the prophet Elisha in
honour, and wept by his bedside when he was dying, addressing him in the words
Elisha himself had used when Elijah was carried up into heaven: "O my father, my
father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof." He was afterwards
involved in war with Amaziah, the king of Judah (2 Chr. 25:23-24), whom he
utterly defeated at Beth-shemesh, on the borders of Dan and Philistia, and
advancing on Jerusalem, broke down a portion of the wall, and carried away the
treasures of the temple and the palace. He soon after died (B.C. 825), and was
buried in Samaria (2 Kings 14:1-17, 19, 20). He was succeeded by his son. (See
JOASH ¯T0002078 [5.].)
Jehohanan - Jehovah-granted, Jeroboam II. (1.) A
Korhite, the head of one of the divisions of the temple porters (1 Chr. 26:3).
(2.) One of Jehoshaphat's "captains" (2 Chr. 17:15).
(3.) The father of Azariah (2 Chr. 28:12).
(4.) The son of Tobiah, an enemy of the Jews (Neh. 6:18).
(5.) Neh. 12:42.
(6.) Neh. 12:13.
Jehoiachin - succeeded his father Jehoiakin (B.C.
599) when only eight years of age, and reigned for one hundred days (2 Chr.
36:9). He is also called Jeconiah (Jer. 24:1; 27:20, etc.), and Coniah (22:24;
37:1). He was succeeded by his uncle, Mattaniah = Zedekiah (q.v.). He was the
last direct heir to the Jewish crown. He was carried captive to Babylon by
Nebuchadnezzar, along with the flower of the nobility, all the leading men in
Jerusalem, and a great body of the general population, some thirteen thousand in
all (2 Kings 24:12-16; Jer. 52:28). After an imprisonment of thirty-seven years
(Jer. 52:31, 33), he was liberated by Evil-merodach, and permitted to occupy a
place in the king's household and sit at his table, receiving "every day a
portion until the day of his death, all the days of his life" (52:32-34).
Jehoiada - Jehovah-known. (1.) The father of Benaiah,
who was one of David's chief warriors (2 Sam. 8:18; 20:23).
(2.) The high priest at the time of Athaliah's usurpation of the throne of
Judah. He married Jehosheba, or Jehoshabeath, the daughter of king Jehoram (2
Chr. 22:11), and took an active part along with his wife in the preservation and
training of Jehoash when Athaliah slew all the royal family of Judah.
The plans he adopted in replacing Jehoash on the throne of his ancestors are
described in 2 Kings 11:2; 12:2; 2 Chr. 22:11; 23:24. He was among the foremost
of the benefactors of the kingdom, and at his death was buried in the city of
David among the kings of Judah (2 Chr. 24:15, 16). He is said to have been one
hundred and thirty years old.
Jehoiakim - he whom Jehovah has set up, the second
son of Josiah, and eighteenth king of Judah, which he ruled over for eleven
years (B.C. 610-599). His original name was Eliakim (q.v.).
On the death of his father his younger brother Jehoahaz (=Shallum, Jer.
22:11), who favoured the Chaldeans against the Egyptians, was made king by the
people; but the king of Egypt, Pharaoh-necho, invaded the land and deposed
Jehoahaz (2 Kings 23:33, 34; Jer. 22:10-12), setting Eliakim on the throne in
his stead, and changing his name to Jehoiakim.
After this the king of Egypt took no part in Jewish politics, having been
defeated by the Chaldeans at Carchemish (2 Kings 24:7; Jer. 46:2). Palestine was
now invaded and conquered by Nebuchadnezzar. Jehoiakim was taken prisoner and
carried captive to Babylon (2 Chr. 36:6, 7). It was at this time that Daniel
also and his three companions were taken captive to Babylon (Dan. 1:1, 2).
Nebuchadnezzar reinstated Jehoiakim on his throne, but treated him as a
vassal king. In the year after this, Jeremiah caused his prophecies to be read
by Baruch in the court of the temple. Jehoiakim, hearing of this, had them also
read in the royal palace before himself. The words displeased him, and taking
the roll from the hands of Baruch he cut it in pieces and threw it into the fire
(Jer. 36:23). During his disastrous reign there was a return to the old idolatry
and corruption of the days of Manasseh.
After three years of subjection to Babylon, Jehoiakim withheld his tribute
and threw off the yoke (2 Kings 24:1), hoping to make himself independent.
Nebuchadnezzar sent bands of Chaldeans, Syrians, and Ammonites (2 Kings 24:2) to
chastise his rebellious vassal. They cruelly harassed the whole country (comp.
Jer. 49:1-6). The king came to a violent death, and his body having been thrown
over the wall of Jerusalem, to convince the beseieging army that he was dead,
after having been dragged away, was buried beyond the gates of Jerusalem "with
the burial of an ass," B.C. 599 (Jer. 22:18, 19; 36:30). Nebuchadnezzar placed
his son Jehoiachin on the throne, wishing still to retain the kingdom of Judah
as tributary to him.
Jehoiarib - Jehovah defends, a priest at Jerusalem,
head of one of the sacerdotal courses (1 Chr. 9:10; 24:7). His "course" went up
from Babylon after the Exile (Ezra 2:36-39; Neh. 7:39-42).
Jehonadab - Jehovah is liberal; or, whom Jehovah
impels. (1.) A son of Shimeah, and nephew of David. It was he who gave the fatal
wicked advice to Amnon, the heir to the throne (2 Sam. 13:3-6). He was very
"subtil," but unprincipled.
(2.) A son of Rechab, the founder of a tribe who bound themselves by a vow to
abstain from wine (Jer. 35:6-19). There were different settlements of Rechabites
(Judg. 1:16; 4:11; 1 Chr. 2:55). (See RECHABITE.)
His interview and alliance with Jehu are mentioned in 2 Kings 10:15-23. He went
with Jehu in his chariot to Samaria.
Jehonathan - whom Jehovah gave. (1.) One of the
stewards of David's store-houses (1 Chr. 27:25).
(2.) A Levite who taught the law to the people of Judah (2 Chr. 17:8).
(3.) Neh. 12:18.
Jehoram - Jehovah-exalted. (1.) Son of Toi, king of
Hamath, sent by his father to congratulate David on the occasion of his victory
over Hadadezer (2 Sam. 8:10).
(2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chr. 26:25).
(3.) A priest sent by Jehoshaphat to instructruct the people in Judah (2 Chr.
(4.) The son of Ahab and Jezebel, and successor to his brother Ahaziah on the
throne of Israel. He reigned twelve years, B.C. 896-884 (2 Kings 1:17; 3:1). His
first work was to reduce to subjection the Moabites, who had asserted their
independence in the reign of his brother. Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, assisted
Jehoram in this effort. He was further helped by his ally the king of Edom.
Elisha went forth with the confederated army (2 Kings 3:1-19), and at the
solicitation of Jehoshaphat encouraged the army with the assurance from the Lord
of a speedy victory. The Moabites under Mesha their king were utterly routed and
their cities destroyed. At Kir-haraseth Mesha made a final stand. The Israelites
refrained from pressing their victory further, and returned to their own land.
Elisha afterwards again befriended Jehoram when a war broke out between the
Syrians and Israel, and in a remarkable way brought that war to a bloodless
close (2 Kings 6:23). But Jehoram, becoming confident in his own power, sank
into idolatry, and brought upon himself and his land another Syrian invasion,
which led to great suffering and distress in Samaria (2 Kings 6:24-33). By a
remarkable providential interposition the city was saved from utter destruction,
and the Syrians were put to flight (2 Kings 7:6-15).
Jehoram was wounded in a battle with the Syrians at Ramah, and obliged to
return to Jezreel (2 Kings 8:29; 9:14, 15), and soon after the army proclaimed
their leader Jehu king of Israel, and revolted from their allegiance to Jehoram
(2 Kings 9). Jehoram was pierced by an arrow from Jehu's bow on the piece of
ground at Jezreel which Ahab had taken from Naboth, and there he died (2 Kings
(5.) The eldest son and successor of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah. He reigned
eight years (B.C. 892-885) alone as king of Judah, having been previously for
some years associated with his father (2 Chr. 21:5, 20; 2 Kings 8:16). His wife
was Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. His daughter Jehosheba was
married to the high priest Jehoiada. He sank into gross idolatry, and brought
upon himself and his kingdom the anger of Jehovah. The Edomites revolted from
under his yoke, and the Philistines and the Arabians and Cushites invaded the
land, and carried away great spoil, along with Jehoram's wives and all his
children, except Ahaziah. He died a painful death from a fearful malady, and was
refused a place in the sepulchre of the kings (2 Kings 8:16-24; 2 Chr. 21).
Jehoshaphat - Jehovah-judged. (1.) One of David's
body-guard (1 Chr. 11:43).
(2.) One of the priests who accompanied the removal of the ark to Jerusalem
(1 Chr. 15:24).
(3.) Son of Ahilud, "recorder" or annalist under David and Solomon (2 Sam.
8:16), a state officer of high rank, chancellor or vizier of the kingdom.
(4.) Solomon's purveyor in Issachar (1 Kings 4:17).
(5.) The son and successor of Asa, king of Judah. After fortifying his
kingdom against Israel (2 Chr. 17:1, 2), he set himself to cleanse the land of
idolatry (1 Kings 22:43). In the third year of his reign he sent out priests and
Levites over the land to instruct the people in the law (2 Chr. 17:7-9). He
enjoyed a great measure of peace and prosperity, the blessing of God resting on
the people "in their basket and their store."
The great mistake of his reign was his entering into an alliance with Ahab,
the king of Israel, which involved him in much disgrace, and brought disaster on
his kingdom (1 Kings 22:1-33). Escaping from the bloody battle of Ramoth-gilead,
the prophet Jehu (2 Chr. 19:1-3) reproached him for the course he had been
pursuing, whereupon he entered with rigour on his former course of opposition to
all idolatry, and of deepening interest in the worship of God and in the
righteous government of the people (2 Chr. 19:4-11).
Again he entered into an alliance with Ahaziah, the king of Israel, for the
purpose of carrying on maritime commerce with Ophir. But the fleet that was then
equipped at Ezion-gaber was speedily wrecked. A new fleet was fitted out without
the co-operation of the king of Israel, and although it was successful, the
trade was not prosecuted (2 Chr. 20:35-37; 1 Kings 22:48-49).
He subsequently joined Jehoram, king of Israel, in a war against the
Moabites, who were under tribute to Israel. This war was successful. The
Moabites were subdued; but the dreadful act of Mesha in offering his own son a
sacrifice on the walls of Kir-haresheth in the sight of the armies of Israel
filled him with horror, and he withdrew and returned to his own land (2 Kings
The last most notable event of his reign was that recorded in 2 Chr. 20. The
Moabites formed a great and powerful confederacy with the surrounding nations,
and came against Jehoshaphat. The allied forces were encamped at Engedi. The
king and his people were filled with alarm, and betook themselves to God in
prayer. The king prayed in the court of the temple, "O our God, wilt thou not
judge them? for we have no might against this great company that cometh against
us." Amid the silence that followed, the voice of Jahaziel the Levite was heard
announcing that on the morrow all this great host would be overthrown. So it
was, for they quarrelled among themselves, and slew one another, leaving to the
people of Judah only to gather the rich spoils of the slain. This was recognized
as a great deliverance wrought for them by God (B.C. 890). Soon after this
Jehoshaphat died, after a reign of twenty-five years, being sixty years of age,
and was succeeded by his son Jehoram (1 Kings 22:50). He had this testimony,
that "he sought the Lord with all his heart" (2 Chr. 22:9). The kingdom of Judah
was never more prosperous than under his reign.
(6.) The son of Nimshi, and father of Jehu, king of Israel (2 Kings 9:2, 14).
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - mentioned in Scripture only
in Joel 3:2, 12. This is the name given in modern times to the valley between
Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, and the Kidron flows through it. Here
Jehoshaphat overthrew the confederated enemies of Israel (Ps. 83:6-8); and in
this valley also God was to overthrow the Tyrians, Zidonians, etc. (Joel 3:4,
19), with an utter overthrow. This has been fulfilled; but Joel speaks of the
final conflict, when God would destroy all Jerusalem's enemies, of whom Tyre and
Zidon, etc., were types. The "valley of Jehoshaphat" may therefore be simply
regarded as a general term for the theatre of God's final judgments on the
enemies of Israel.
This valley has from ancient times been used by the Jews as a burial-ground.
It is all over paved with flat stones as tombstones, bearing on them Hebrew
Jehosheba - Jehovah-swearing, the daughter of
Jehoram, the king of Israel. She is called Jehoshabeath in 2 Chr. 22:11. She was
the only princess of the royal house who was married to a high priest, Jehoiada
(2 Chr. 22:11).
Jehovah - the special and significant name (not
merely an appellative title such as Lord [adonai]) by which God revealed himself
to the ancient Hebrews (Ex. 6:2, 3). This name, the Tetragrammaton of the
Greeks, was held by the later Jews to be so sacred that it was never pronounced
except by the high priest on the great Day of Atonement, when he entered into
the most holy place. Whenever this name occurred in the sacred books they
pronounced it, as they still do, "Adonai" (i.e., Lord), thus using another word
in its stead. The Massorets gave to it the vowel-points appropriate to this
word. This Jewish practice was founded on a false interpretation of Lev. 24:16.
The meaning of the word appears from Ex. 3:14 to be "the unchanging, eternal,
self-existent God," the "I am that I am," a convenant-keeping God. (Comp. Mal.
3:6; Hos. 12:5; Rev. 1:4, 8.)
The Hebrew name "Jehovah" is generally translated in the Authorized Version
(and the Revised Version has not departed from this rule) by the word LORD
printed in small capitals, to distinguish it from the rendering of the Hebrew
Adonai and the Greek Kurios, which are also rendered Lord, but
printed in the usual type. The Hebrew word is translated "Jehovah" only in Ex.
6:3; Ps. 83:18; Isa. 12:2; 26:4, and in the compound names mentioned below.
It is worthy of notice that this name is never used in the LXX., the
Samaritan Pentateuch, the Apocrypha, or in the New Testament. It is found,
however, on the "Moabite stone" (q.v.), and consequently it must have been in
the days of Mesba so commonly pronounced by the Hebrews as to be familiar to
their heathen neighbours.
Jehovah-jireh - Jehovah will see; i.e., will provide,
the name given by Abraham to the scene of his offering up the ram which was
caught in the thicket on Mount Moriah. The expression used in Gen. 22:14, "in
the mount of the Lord it shall be seen," has been regarded as equivalent to the
saying, "Man's extremity is God's opportunity."
Jehovah-nissi - Jehovah my banner, the title given by
Moses to the altar which he erected on the hill on the top of which he stood
with uplifted hands while Israel prevailed over their enemies the Amalekites
Jehovah-shalom - Jehovah send peace, the name which
Gideon gave to the altar he erected on the spot at Ophrah where the angel
appeared to him (Judg. 6:24).
Jehovah-shammah - Jehovah is there, the symbolical
title given by Ezekiel to Jerusalem, which was seen by him in vision (Ezek.
48:35). It was a type of the gospel Church.
Jehovah-tsidkenu - Jehovah our rightousness, rendered
in the Authorized Version, "The LORD our righteousness," a title given to the
Messiah (Jer. 23:6, marg.), and also to Jerusalem (33:16, marg.).
Jehozabad - Jehovah-given. (1.) The son of Obed-edom
(1 Chr. 26:4), one of the Levite porters.
(2.) The son of Shomer, one of the two conspirators who put king Jehoash to
death in Millo in Jerusalem (2 Kings 12:21).
(3.) 2 Chr. 17:18.
Jehozadak - Jehovah-justified, the son of the high
priest Seraiah at the time of the Babylonian exile (1 Chr. 6:14, 15). He was
carried into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, and probably died in Babylon. He was
the father of Jeshua, or Joshua, who returned with Zerubbabel.
Jehu - Jehovah is he. (1.) The son of Obed, and
father of Azariah (1 Chr. 2:38).
(2.) One of the Benjamite slingers that joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
(3.) The son of Hanani, a prophet of Judah (1 Kings 16:1, 7; 2 Chr. 19:2;
20:34), who pronounced the sentence of God against Baasha, the king of Israel.
(4.) King of Israel, the son of Jehoshaphat (2 Kings 9:2), and grandson of
Nimshi. The story of his exaltation to the throne is deeply interesting. During
the progress of a war against the Syrians, who were becoming more and more
troublesome to Israel, in a battle at Ramoth-gilead Jehoram, the king of Israel,
had been wounded; and leaving his army there, had returned to Jezreel, whither
his ally, Ahaziah, king of Judah, had also gone on a visit of sympathy with him
(2 Kings 8:28, 29). The commanders, being left in charge of the conduct of the
war, met in council; and while engaged in their deliberations, a messenger from
Elisha appeared in the camp, and taking Jehu from the council, led him into a
secret chamber, and there anointed him king over Israel, and immediately retired
and disappeared (2 Kings 9:5, 6). On being interrogated by his companions as to
the object of this mysterious visitor, he informed them of what had been done,
when immediately, with the utmost enthusiasm, they blew their trumpets and
proclaimed him king (2 Kings 9:11-14). He then with a chosen band set forth with
all speed to Jezreel, where, with his own hand, he slew Jehoram, shooting him
through the heart with an arrow (9:24). The king of Judah, when trying to
escape, was fatally wounded by one of Jehu's soldiers at Beth-gan. On entering
the city, Jehu commanded the eunchs of the royal palace to cast down Jezebel
into the street, where her mangled body was trodden under foot by the horses.
Jehu was now master of Jezreel, whence he communicated with the persons in
authority in Samaria the capital, commanding them to appear before him on the
morrow with the heads of all the royal princes of Samaria. Accordingly on the
morrow seventy heads were piled up in two heaps at his gate. At "the
shearing-house" (2 Kings 10:12-14) other forty-two connected with the house of
Ahab were put to death (2 Kings 10:14). As Jehu rode on toward Samaria, he met
Jehonadab (q.v.), whom he took into his chariot, and they entered the capital
together. By a cunning stratagem he cut off all the worshippers of Baal found in
Samaria (2 Kings 10:19-25), and destroyed the temple of the idol (2 Kings
Notwithstanding all this apparent zeal for the worship of Jehovah, Jehu yet
tolerated the worship of the golden calves at Dan and Bethel. For this the
divine displeasure rested upon him, and his kingdom suffered disaster in war
with the Syrians (2 Kings 10:29-33). He died after a reign of twenty-eight years
(B.C. 884-856), and was buried in Samaria (10:34-36). "He was one of those
decisive, terrible, and ambitious, yet prudent, calculating, and passionless men
whom God from time to time raises up to change the fate of empires and execute
his judgments on the earth." He was the first Jewish king who came in contact
with the Assyrian power in the time of Shalmaneser II.
Jehucal - able, the son of Shelemiah. He is also
called Jucal (Jer. 38:1). He was one of the two persons whom Zedekiah sent to
request the prophet Jeremiah to pray for the kingdom (Jer. 37:3) during the time
of its final siege by Nebuchadnezzar. He was accompanied by Zephaniah (q.v.).
Jehudi - a Jew, son of Nethaniah. He was sent by the
princes to invite Baruch to read Jeremiah's roll to them (Jer. 36:14, 21).
Jeiel - snatched away by God. (1.) A descendant of
Benjamin (1 Chr. 9:35; 8:29).
(2.) One of the Levites who took part in praising God on the removal of the
ark to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 16:5).
(3.) 2 Chr. 29:13. A Levite of the sons of Asaph.
(4.) 2 Chr. 26:11. A scribe.
(5.) 1 Chr. 5:7. A Reubenite chief.
(6.) One of the chief Levites, who made an offering for the restoration of
the Passover by Josiah (2 Chr. 35:9).
(7.) Ezra 8:13.
(8.) Ezra 10:43.
Jemima - dove, the eldest of Job's three daughters
born after his time of trial (Job 42:14).
Jephthah - whom God sets free, or the breaker
through, a "mighty man of valour" who delivered Israel from the oppression of
the Ammonites (Judg. 11:1-33), and judged Israel six years (12:7). He has been
described as "a wild, daring, Gilead mountaineer, a sort of warrior Elijah."
After forty-five years of comparative quiet Israel again apostatized, and in
"process of time the children of Ammon made war against Israel" (11:5). In their
distress the elders of Gilead went to fetch Jephthah out of the land of Tob, to
which he had fled when driven out wrongfully by his brothers from his father's
inheritance (2), and the people made him their head and captain. The "elders of
Gilead" in their extremity summoned him to their aid, and he at once undertook
the conduct of the war against Ammon. Twice he sent an embassy to the king of
Ammon, but in vain. War was inevitable. The people obeyed his summons, and "the
spirit of the Lord came upon him." Before engaging in war he vowed that if
successful he would offer as a "burnt-offering" whatever would come out of the
door of his house first to meet him on his return. The defeat of the Ammonites
was complete. "He smote them from Aroer, even till thou come to Minnith, even
twenty cities, and unto the plain of the vineyards [Heb. 'Abel Keramim], with a
very great slaughter" (Judg. 11:33). The men of Ephraim regarded themselves as
insulted in not having been called by Jephthah to go with him to war against
Ammon. This led to a war between the men of Gilead and Ephraim (12:4), in which
many of the Ephraimites perished. (See SHIBBOLETH.)
"Then died Jephthah the Gileadite, and was buried in one of the cities of
Jephthah's vow - (Judg. 11:30, 31). After a crushing
defeat of the Ammonites, Jephthah returned to his own house, and the first to
welcome him was his own daughter. This was a terrible blow to the victor, and in
his despair he cried out, "Alas, my daughter! thou hast brought me very low...I
have opened my mouth unto the Lord, and cannot go back." With singular nobleness
of spirit she answered, "Do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of
thy mouth." She only asked two months to bewail her maidenhood with her
companions upon the mountains. She utters no reproach against her father's
rashness, and is content to yield her life since her father has returned a
conqueror. But was it so? Did Jephthah offer up his daughter as a
"burnt-offering"? This question has been much debated, and there are many able
commentators who argue that such a sacrifice was actually offered. We are
constrained, however, by a consideration of Jephthah's known piety as a true
worshipper of Jehovah, his evident acquaintance with the law of Moses, to which
such sacrifices were abhorrent (Lev. 18:21; 20:2-5; Deut. 12:31), and the place
he holds in the roll of the heroes of the faith in the Epistle to the Hebrews
(11:32), to conclude that she was only doomed to a life of perpetual celibacy.
Jephunneh - nimble, or a beholder. (1.) The father of
Caleb, who was Joshua's companion in exploring Canaan (Num. 13:6), a Kenezite
(Josh. 14:14). (2.) One of the descendants of Asher (1 Chr. 7:38).
Jerahmeel - loving God. (1.) The son of Hezron, the
brother of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:9, 25, 26, etc.).
(2.) The son of Kish, a Levite (1 Chr. 24:29).
(3.) Son of Hammelech (Jer. 36:26).
Jeremiah - raised up or appointed by Jehovah. (1.) A
Gadite who joined David in the wilderness (1 Chr. 12:10).
(2.) A Gadite warrior (1 Chr. 12:13).
(3.) A Benjamite slinger who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:4).
(4.) One of the chiefs of the tribe of Manasseh on the east of Jordan (1 Chr.
(5.) The father of Hamutal (2 Kings 23:31), the wife of Josiah.
(6.) One of the "greater prophets" of the Old Testament, son of Hilkiah
(q.v.), a priest of Anathoth (Jer. 1:1; 32:6). He was called to the prophetical
office when still young (1:6), in the thirteenth year of Josiah (B.C. 628). He
left his native place, and went to reside in Jerusalem, where he greatly
assisted Josiah in his work of reformation (2 Kings 23:1-25). The death of this
pious king was bewailed by the prophet as a national calamity (2 Chr. 35:25).
During the three years of the reign of Jehoahaz we find no reference to
Jeremiah, but in the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim the enmity of the
people against him broke out in bitter persecution, and he was placed apparently
under restraint (Jer. 36:5). In the fourth year of Jehoiakim he was commanded to
write the predictions given to him, and to read them to the people on the
fast-day. This was done by Baruch his servant in his stead, and produced much
public excitement. The roll was read to the king. In his recklessness he seized
the roll, and cut it to pieces, and cast it into the fire, and ordered both
Baruch and Jeremiah to be apprehended. Jeremiah procured another roll, and wrote
in it the words of the roll the king had destroyed, and "many like words"
besides (Jer. 36:32).
He remained in Jerusalem, uttering from time to time his words of warning,
but without effect. He was there when Nebuchadnezzar besieged the city (Jer.
37:4, 5), B.C. 589. The rumour of the approach of the Egyptians to aid the Jews
in this crisis induced the Chaldeans to withdraw and return to their own land.
This, however, was only for a time. The prophet, in answer to his prayer,
received a message from God announcing that the Chaldeans would come again and
take the city, and burn it with fire (37:7, 8). The princes, in their anger at
such a message by Jeremiah, cast him into prison (37:15-38:13). He was still in
confinement when the city was taken (B.C. 588). The Chaldeans released him, and
showed him great kindness, allowing him to choose the place of his residence. He
accordingly went to Mizpah with Gedaliah, who had been made governor of Judea.
Johanan succeeded Gedaliah, and refusing to listen to Jeremiah's counsels, went
down into Egypt, taking Jeremiah and Baruch with him (Jer. 43:6). There probably
the prophet spent the remainder of his life, in vain seeking still to turn the
people to the Lord, from whom they had so long revolted (44). He lived till the
reign of Evil-Merodach, son of Nebuchadnezzar, and must have been about ninety
years of age at his death. We have no authentic record of his death. He may have
died at Tahpanhes, or, according to a tradition, may have gone to Babylon with
the army of Nebuchadnezzar; but of this there is nothing certain.
Jeremiah, Book of - consists of twenty-three separate
and independent sections, arranged in five books. I. The introduction, ch. 1.
II. Reproofs of the sins of the Jews, consisting of seven sections, (1.) ch. 2;
(2.) ch. 3-6; (3.) ch. 7-10; (4.) ch. 11-13; (5.) ch. 14-17:18; (6.) ch.
17:19-ch. 20; (7.) ch. 21-24. III. A general review of all nations, in two
sections, (1.) ch. 46-49; (2.) ch. 25; with an historical appendix of three
sections, (1.) ch. 26; (2.) ch. 27; (3.) ch. 28, 29. IV. Two sections picturing
the hopes of better times, (1.) ch. 30, 31; (2.) ch. 32,33; to which is added an
historical appendix in three sections, (1.) ch. 34:1-7; (2.) ch. 34:8-22; (3.)
ch. 35. V. The conclusion, in two sections, (1.) ch. 36; (2.) ch. 45.
In Egypt, after an interval, Jeremiah is supposed to have added three
sections, viz., ch. 37-39; 40-43; and 44.
The principal Messianic prophecies are found in 23:1-8; 31:31-40; and
Jeremiah's prophecies are noted for the frequent repetitions found in them of
the same words and phrases and imagery. They cover the period of about 30 years.
They are not recorded in the order of time. When and under what circumstances
this book assumed its present form we know not.
The LXX. Version of this book is, in its arrangement and in other
particulars, singularly at variance with the original. The LXX. omits 10:6-8;
27:19-22; 29:16-20; 33:14-26; 39:4-13; 52:2, 3, 15, 28-30, etc. About 2,700
words in all of the original are omitted. These omissions, etc., are capricious
and arbitrary, and render the version unreliable.
Jericho - place of fragrance, a fenced city in the
midst of a vast grove of palm trees, in the plain of Jordan, over against the
place where that river was crossed by the Israelites (Josh. 3:16). Its site was
near the 'Ain es-Sultan, Elisha's Fountain (2 Kings 2:19-22), about 5 miles west
of Jordan. It was the most important city in the Jordan valley (Num. 22:1;
34:15), and the strongest fortress in all the land of Canaan. It was the key to
This city was taken in a very remarkable manner by the Israelites (Josh. 6).
God gave it into their hands. The city was "accursed" (Heb. herem, "devoted" to
Jehovah), and accordingly (Josh. 6:17; comp. Lev. 27:28, 29; Deut. 13:16) all
the inhabitants and all the spoil of the city were to be destroyed, "only the
silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass and of iron" were reserved and
"put into the treasury of the house of Jehovah" (Josh. 6:24; comp. Num. 31:22,
23, 50-54). Only Rahab "and her father's household, and all that she had," were
preserved from destruction, according to the promise of the spies (Josh. 2:14).
In one of the Amarna tablets Adoni-zedec (q.v.) writes to the king of Egypt
informing him that the 'Abiri (Hebrews) had prevailed, and had taken the
fortress of Jericho, and were plundering "all the king's lands." It would seem
that the Egyptian troops had before this been withdrawn from Palestine.
This city was given to the tribe of Benjamin (Josh. 18:21), and it was
inhabited in the time of the Judges (Judg. 3:13; 2 Sam. 10:5). It is not again
mentioned till the time of David (2 Sam. 10:5). "Children of Jericho" were among
the captives who returned under Zerubbabel Ezra 2:34; Neh. 7:36). Hiel (q.v.)
the Bethelite attempted to make it once more a fortified city (1 Kings 16:34).
Between the beginning and the end of his undertaking all his children were cut
In New Testament times Jericho stood some distance to the south-east of the
ancient one, and near the opening of the valley of Achor. It was a rich and
flourishing town, having a considerable trade, and celebrated for the palm trees
which adorned the plain around. It was visited by our Lord on his last journey
to Jerusalem. Here he gave sight to two blind men (Matt. 20:29-34; Mark
10:46-52), and brought salvation to the house of Zacchaeus the publican (Luke
The poor hamlet of er-Riha, the representative of modern Jericho, is situated
some two miles farther to the east. It is in a ruinous condition, having been
destroyed by the Turks in 1840. "The soil of the plain," about the middle of
which the ancient city stood, "is unsurpassed in fertility; there is abundance
of water for irrigation, and many of the old aqueducts are almost perfect; yet
nearly the whole plain is waste and desolate...The climate of Jericho is
exceedingly hot and unhealthy. This is accounted for by the depression of the
plain, which is about 1,200 feet below the level of the sea."
There were three different Jerichos, on three different sites, the Jericho of
Joshua, the Jericho of Herod, and the Jericho of the Crusades. Er-Riha, the
modern Jericho, dates from the time of the Crusades. Dr. Bliss has found in a
hollow scooped out for some purpose or other near the foot of the biggest mound
above the Sultan's Spring specimens of Amorite or pre-Israelitish pottery
precisely identical with what he had discovered on the site of ancient Lachish.
He also traced in this place for a short distance a mud brick wall in situ,
which he supposes to be the very wall that fell before the trumpets of Joshua.
The wall is not far from the foot of the great precipice of Quarantania and its
numerous caverns, and the spies of Joshua could easily have fled from the city
and been speedily hidden in these fastnesses.
Jerimoth - heights. (1.) One of the sons of Bela (1
(2.) 1 Chr. 24:30, a Merarite Levite.
(3.) A Benjamite slinger who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:5).
(4.) A Levitical musician under Heman his father (1 Chr. 25:4).
(5.) 1 Chr. 27:19, ruler of Naphtali.
(6.) One of David's sons (2 Chr. 11:18).
(7.) A Levite, one of the overseers of the temple offerings (2 Chr. 31:13) in
the reign of Hezekiah.
Jeroboam - increase of the people. (1.) The son of
Nebat (1 Kings 11:26-39), "an Ephrathite," the first king of the ten tribes,
over whom he reigned twenty-two years (B.C. 976-945). He was the son of a widow
of Zereda, and while still young was promoted by Solomon to be chief
superintendent of the "burnden", i.e., of the bands of forced labourers.
Influenced by the words of the prophet Ahijah, he began to form conspiracies
with the view of becoming king of the ten tribes; but these having been
discovered, he fled to Egypt (1 Kings 11:29-40), where he remained for a length
of time under the protection of Shishak I. On the death of Solomon, the ten
tribes, having revolted, sent to invite him to become their king. The conduct of
Rehoboam favoured the designs of Jeroboam, and he was accordingly proclaimed
"king of Israel" (1 Kings 12: 1-20). He rebuilt and fortified Shechem as the
capital of his kingdom. He at once adopted means to perpetuate the division thus
made between the two parts of the kingdom, and erected at Dan and Bethel, the
two extremities of his kingdom, "golden calves," which he set up as symbols of
Jehovah, enjoining the people not any more to go up to worship at Jerusalem, but
to bring their offerings to the shrines he had erected. Thus he became
distinguished as the man "who made Israel to sin." This policy was followed by
all the succeeding kings of Israel.
While he was engaged in offering incense at Bethel, a prophet from Judah
appeared before him with a warning message from the Lord. Attempting to arrest
the prophet for his bold words of defiance, his hand was "dried up," and the
altar before which he stood was rent asunder. At his urgent entreaty his "hand
was restored him again" (1 Kings 13:1-6, 9; comp. 2 Kings 23:15); but the
miracle made no abiding impression on him. His reign was one of constant war
with the house of Judah. He died soon after his son Abijah (1 Kings 14:1-18).
(2.) Jeroboam II., the son and successor of Jehoash, and the fourteenth king
of Israel, over which he ruled for forty-one years, B.C. 825-784 (2 Kings
14:23). He followed the example of the first Jeroboam in keeping up the worship
of the golden calves (2 Kings 14:24). His reign was contemporary with those of
Amaziah (2 Kings 14:23) and Uzziah (15:1), kings of Judah. He was victorious
over the Syrians (13:4; 14:26, 27), and extended Israel to its former limits,
from "the entering of Hamath to the sea of the plain" (14:25; Amos 6:14). His
reign of forty-one years was the most prosperous that Israel had ever known as
yet. With all this outward prosperity, however, iniquity widely prevailed in the
land (Amos 2:6-8; 4:1; 6:6; Hos. 4:12-14). The prophets Hosea (1:1), Joel (3:16;
Amos 1:1, 2), Amos (1:1), and Jonah (2 Kings 14:25) lived during his reign. He
died, and was buried with his ancestors (14:29). He was succeeded by his son
His name occurs in Scripture only in 2 Kings 13:13; 14:16, 23, 27, 28, 29;
15:1, 8; 1 Chr. 5:17; Hos. 1:1; Amos 1:1; 7:9, 10, 11. In all other passages it
is Jeroboam the son of Nebat that is meant.
Jeroham - cherished; who finds mercy. (1.) Father of
Elkanah, and grandfather of the prophet Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1).
(2.) The father of Azareel, the "captain" of the tribe of Dan (1 Chr. 27:22).
(3.) 1 Chr. 12:7; a Benjamite.
(4.) 2 Chr. 23:1; one whose son assisted in placing Joash on the throne.
(5.) 1 Chr. 9:8; a Benjamite.
(6.) 1 Chr. 9:12; a priest, perhaps the same as in Neh. 11:12.
Jerubbaal - contender with Baal; or, let Baal plead,
a surname of Gideon; a name given to him because he destroyed the altar of Baal
(Judg. 6:32; 7:1; 8:29; 1 Sam. 12:11).
Jerubbesheth - contender with the shame; i.e., idol,
a surname also of Gideon (2 Sam. 11:21).
Jeruel - founded by God, a "desert" on the ascent
from the valley of the Dead Sea towards Jerusalem. It lay beyond the wilderness
of Tekoa, in the direction of Engedi (2 Chr. 20:16, 20). It corresponds with the
tract of country now called el-Hasasah.
Jerusalem - called also Salem, Ariel, Jebus, the
"city of God," the "holy city;" by the modern Arabs el-Khuds, meaning "the
holy;" once "the city of Judah" (2 Chr. 25:28). This name is in the original in
the dual form, and means "possession of peace," or "foundation of peace." The
dual form probably refers to the two mountains on which it was built, viz., Zion
and Moriah; or, as some suppose, to the two parts of the city, the "upper" and
the "lower city." Jerusalem is a "mountain city enthroned on a mountain
fastness" (comp. Ps. 68:15, 16; 87:1; 125:2; 76:1, 2; 122:3). It stands on the
edge of one of the highest table-lands in Palestine, and is surrounded on the
south-eastern, the southern, and the western sides by deep and precipitous
It is first mentioned in Scripture under the name Salem (Gen. 14:18; comp.
Ps. 76:2). When first mentioned under the name Jerusalem, Adonizedek was its
king (Josh. 10:1). It is afterwards named among the cities of Benjamin (Judg.
19:10; 1 Chr. 11:4); but in the time of David it was divided between Benjamin
and Judah. After the death of Joshua the city was taken and set on fire by the
men of Judah (Judg. 1:1-8); but the Jebusites were not wholly driven out of it.
The city is not again mentioned till we are told that David brought the head of
Goliath thither (1 Sam. 17:54). David afterwards led his forces against the
Jebusites still residing within its walls, and drove them out, fixing his own
dwelling on Zion, which he called "the city of David" (2 Sam. 5:5-9; 1 Chr.
11:4-8). Here he built an altar to the Lord on the threshing-floor of Araunah
the Jebusite (2 Sam. 24:15-25), and thither he brought up the ark of the
covenant and placed it in the new tabernacle which he had prepared for it.
Jerusalem now became the capital of the kingdom.
After the death of David, Solomon built the temple, a house for the name of
the Lord, on Mount Moriah (B.C. 1010). He also greatly strengthened and adorned
the city, and it became the great centre of all the civil and religious affairs
of the nation (Deut. 12:5; comp. 12:14; 14:23; 16:11-16; Ps. 122).
After the disruption of the kingdom on the accession to the throne of
Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, Jerusalem became the capital of the kingdom of the
two tribes. It was subsequently often taken and retaken by the Egyptians, the
Assyrians, and by the kings of Israel (2 Kings 14:13, 14; 18:15, 16; 23:33-35;
24:14; 2 Chr. 12:9; 26:9; 27:3, 4; 29:3; 32:30; 33:11), till finally, for the
abounding iniquities of the nation, after a siege of three years, it was taken
and utterly destroyed, its walls razed to the ground, and its temple and palaces
consumed by fire, by Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon (2 Kings 25; 2 Chr. 36;
Jer. 39), B.C. 588. The desolation of the city and the land was completed by the
retreat of the principal Jews into Egypt (Jer. 40-44), and by the final carrying
captive into Babylon of all that still remained in the land (52:3), so that it
was left without an inhabitant (B.C. 582). Compare the predictions, Deut. 28;
But the streets and walls of Jerusalem were again to be built, in troublous
times (Dan. 9:16, 19, 25), after a captivity of seventy years. This restoration
was begun B.C. 536, "in the first year of Cyrus" (Ezra 1:2, 3, 5-11). The Books
of Ezra and Nehemiah contain the history of the re-building of the city and
temple, and the restoration of the kingdom of the Jews, consisting of a portion
of all the tribes. The kingdom thus constituted was for two centuries under the
dominion of Persia, till B.C. 331; and thereafter, for about a century and a
half, under the rulers of the Greek empire in Asia, till B.C. 167. For a century
the Jews maintained their independence under native rulers, the Asmonean
princes. At the close of this period they fell under the rule of Herod and of
members of his family, but practically under Rome, till the time of the
destruction of Jerusalem, A.D. 70. The city was then laid in ruins.
The modern Jerusalem by-and-by began to be built over the immense beds of
rubbish resulting from the overthrow of the ancient city; and whilst it occupies
certainly the same site, there are no evidences that even the lines of its
streets are now what they were in the ancient city. Till A.D. 131 the Jews who
still lingered about Jerusalem quietly submitted to the Roman sway. But in that
year the emperor (Hadrian), in order to hold them in subjection, rebuilt and
fortified the city. The Jews, however, took possession of it, having risen under
the leadership of one Bar-Chohaba (i.e., "the son of the star") in revolt
against the Romans. Some four years afterwards (A.D. 135), however, they were
driven out of it with great slaughter, and the city was again destroyed; and
over its ruins was built a Roman city called Aelia Capitolina, a name which it
retained till it fell under the dominion of the Mohammedans, when it was called
el-Khuds, i.e., "the holy."
In A.D. 326 Helena, mother of the emperor Constantine, made a pilgrimage to
Jerusalem with the view of discovering the places mentioned in the life of our
Lord. She caused a church to be built on what was then supposed to be the place
of the nativity at Bethlehem. Constantine, animated by her example, searched for
the holy sepulchre, and built over the supposed site a magnificent church, which
was completed and dedicated A.D. 335. He relaxed the laws against the Jews till
this time in force, and permitted them once a year to visit the city and wail
over the desolation of "the holy and beautiful house."
In A.D. 614 the Persians, after defeating the Roman forces of the emperor
Heraclius, took Jerusalem by storm, and retained it till A.D. 637, when it was
taken by the Arabians under the Khalif Omar. It remained in their possession
till it passed, in A.D. 960, under the dominion of the Fatimite khalifs of
Egypt, and in A.D. 1073 under the Turcomans. In A.D. 1099 the crusader Godfrey
of Bouillon took the city from the Moslems with great slaughter, and was elected
king of Jerusalem. He converted the Mosque of Omar into a Christian cathedral.
During the eighty-eight years which followed, many churches and convents were
erected in the holy city. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was rebuilt during
this period, and it alone remains to this day. In A.D. 1187 the sultan Saladin
wrested the city from the Christians. From that time to the present day, with
few intervals, Jerusalem has remained in the hands of the Moslems. It has,
however, during that period been again and again taken and retaken, demolished
in great part and rebuilt, no city in the world having passed through so many
In the year 1850 the Greek and Latin monks residing in Jerusalem had a fierce
dispute about the guardianship of what are called the "holy places." In this
dispute the emperor Nicholas of Russia sided with the Greeks, and Louis
Napoleon, the emperor of the French, with the Latins. This led the Turkish
authorities to settle the question in a way unsatisfactory to Russia. Out of
this there sprang the Crimean War, which was protracted and sanguinary, but
which had important consequences in the way of breaking down the barriers of
Modern Jerusalem "lies near the summit of a broad mountain-ridge, which
extends without interruption from the plain of Esdraelon to a line drawn between
the southern end of the Dead Sea and the southeastern corner of the
Mediterranean." This high, uneven table-land is everywhere from 20 to 25
geographical miles in breadth. It was anciently known as the mountains of
Ephraim and Judah.
"Jerusalem is a city of contrasts, and differs widely from Damascus, not
merely because it is a stone town in mountains, whilst the latter is a mud city
in a plain, but because while in Damascus Moslem religion and Oriental custom
are unmixed with any foreign element, in Jerusalem every form of religion, every
nationality of East and West, is represented at one time."
Jerusalem is first mentioned under that name in the Book of Joshua, and the
Tell-el-Amarna collection of tablets includes six letters from its Amorite king
to Egypt, recording the attack of the Abiri about B.C. 1480. The name is there
spelt Uru-Salim ("city of peace"). Another monumental record in which the Holy
City is named is that of Sennacherib's attack in B.C. 702. The "camp of the
Assyrians" was still shown about A.D. 70, on the flat ground to the north-west,
included in the new quarter of the city.
The city of David included both the upper city and Millo, and was surrounded
by a wall built by David and Solomon, who appear to have restored the original
Jebusite fortifications. The name Zion (or Sion) appears to have been, like
Ariel ("the hearth of God"), a poetical term for Jerusalem, but in the Greek age
was more specially used of the Temple hill. The priests' quarter grew up on
Ophel, south of the Temple, where also was Solomon's Palace outside the original
city of David. The walls of the city were extended by Jotham and Manasseh to
include this suburb and the Temple (2 Chr. 27:3; 33:14).
Jerusalem is now a town of some 50,000 inhabitants, with ancient mediaeval
walls, partly on the old lines, but extending less far to the south. The
traditional sites, as a rule, were first shown in the 4th and later centuries
A.D., and have no authority. The results of excavation have, however, settled
most of the disputed questions, the limits of the Temple area, and the course of
the old walls having been traced.
Jerusha - possession, or possessed; i.e., "by a
husband", the wife of Uzziah, and mother of king Jotham (2 Kings 15:33).
Jeshaiah - deliverance of Jehovah. (1.) A Kohathite
Levite, the father of Joram, of the family of Eliezer (1 Chr. 26:25); called
also Isshiah (24:21).
(2.) One of the sons of Jeduthum (1 Chr. 25:3, 15).
(3.) One of the three sons of Hananiah (1 Chr. 3:21).
(4.) Son of Athaliah (Ezra 8:7).
(5.) A Levite of the family of Merari (8:19).
Jeshanah - a city of the kingdom of Israel (2 Chr.
Jesharelah - upright towards God, the head of the
seventh division of Levitical musicians (1 Chr. 25:14).
Jeshebeab - seat of his father, the head of the
fourteenth division of priests (1 Chr. 24:13).
Jesher - uprightness, the first of the three sons of
Caleb by Azubah (1 Chr. 2:18).
Jeshimon - the waste, probably some high waste land
to the south of the Dead Sea (Num. 21:20; 23:28; 1 Sam. 23:19, 24); or rather
not a proper name at all, but simply "the waste" or "wilderness," the district
on which the plateau of Ziph (q.v.) looks down.
Jeshua - (1.) Head of the ninth priestly order (Ezra
2:36); called also Jeshuah (1 Chr. 24:11).
(2.) A Levite appointed by Hezekiah to distribute offerings in the priestly
cities (2 Chr. 31:15).
(3.) Ezra 2:6; Neh. 7:11.
(4.) Ezra 2:40; Neh. 7:43.
(5.) The son of Jozadak, and high priest of the Jews under Zerubbabel (Neh.
7:7; 12:1, 7, 10, 26); called Joshua (Hag. 1:1, 12; 2:2, 4; Zech. 3:1, 3, 6, 8,
(6.) A Levite (Ezra 8:33).
(7.) Neh. 3:19.
(8.) A Levite who assisted in the reformation under Nehemiah (8:7; 9:4, 5).
(9.) Son of Kadmiel (Neh. 12:24).
(10.) A city of Judah (Neh. 11:26).
(11.) Neh. 8:17; Joshua, the son of Nun.
Jeshurun - a poetical name for the people of Israel,
used in token of affection, meaning, "the dear upright people" (Deut. 32:15;
33:5, 26; Isa. 44:2).
Jesse - firm, or a gift, a son of Obed, the son of
Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:17, 22; Matt. 1:5, 6; Luke 3:32). He was the father of
eight sons, the youngest of whom was David (1 Sam. 17:12). The phrase "stem of
Jesse" is used for the family of David (Isa. 11:1), and "root of Jesse" for the
Messiah (Isa. 11:10; Rev. 5:5). Jesse was a man apparently of wealth and
position at Bethlehem (1 Sam. 17:17, 18, 20; Ps. 78:71). The last reference to
him is of David's procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab (1 Sam.
Jesus - (1.) Joshua, the son of Nun (Acts 7:45; Heb.
4:8; R.V., "Joshua").
(2.) A Jewish Christian surnamed Justus (Col. 4:11).
Je'sus, the proper, as Christ is the official, name of our Lord. To
distinguish him from others so called, he is spoken of as "Jesus of Nazareth"
(John 18:7), and "Jesus the son of Joseph" (John 6:42).
This is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua, which was originally Hoshea
(Num. 13:8, 16), but changed by Moses into Jehoshua (Num. 13:16; 1 Chr. 7:27),
or Joshua. After the Exile it assumed the form Jeshua, whence the Greek form
Jesus. It was given to our Lord to denote the object of his mission, to save
The life of Jesus on earth may be divided into two great periods, (1) that of
his private life, till he was about thirty years of age; and (2) that of his
public life, which lasted about three years.
In the "fulness of time" he was born at Bethlehem, in the reign of the
emperor Augustus, of Mary, who was betrothed to Joseph, a carpenter (Matt. 1:1;
Luke 3:23; comp. John 7:42). His birth was announced to the shepherds (Luke
2:8-20). Wise men from the east came to Bethlehem to see him who was born "King
of the Jews," bringing gifts with them (Matt. 2:1-12). Herod's cruel jealousy
led to Joseph's flight into Egypt with Mary and the infant Jesus, where they
tarried till the death of this king (Matt. 2:13-23), when they returned and
settled in Nazareth, in Lower Galilee (2:23; comp. Luke 4:16; John 1:46, etc.).
At the age of twelve years he went up to Jerusalem to the Passover with his
parents. There, in the temple, "in the midst of the doctors," all that heard him
were "astonished at his understanding and answers" (Luke 2:41, etc.).
Eighteen years pass, of which we have no record beyond this, that he returned
to Nazareth and "increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and
man" (Luke 2:52).
He entered on his public ministry when he was about thirty years of age. It
is generally reckoned to have extended to about three years. "Each of these
years had peculiar features of its own. (1.) The first year may be called the
year of obscurity, both because the records of it which we possess are very
scanty, and because he seems during it to have been only slowly emerging into
public notice. It was spent for the most part in Judea. (2.) The second year was
the year of public favour, during which the country had become thoroughly aware
of him; his activity was incessant, and his frame rang through the length and
breadth of the land. It was almost wholly passed in Galilee. (3.) The third was
the year of opposition, when the public favour ebbed away. His enemies
multiplied and assailed him with more and more pertinacity, and at last he fell
a victim to their hatred. The first six months of this final year were passed in
Galilee, and the last six in other parts of the land.", Stalker's Life of Jesus
Christ, p. 45.
The only reliable sources of information regarding the life of Christ on
earth are the Gospels, which present in historical detail the words and the work
of Christ in so many different aspects. (See CHIRST.)
Jether - surplus; excellence. (1.) Father-in-law of
Moses (Ex. 4:18 marg.), called elsewhere Jethro (q.v.).
(2.) The oldest of Gideon's seventy sons (Judg. 8:20).
(3.) The father of Amasa, David's general (1 Kings 2:5, 32); called Ithra (2
(4.) 1 Chr. 7:38.
(5.) 1 Chr. 2:32; one of Judah's posterity.
(6.) 1 Chr. 4:17.
Jetheth - a peg, or a prince, one of the Edomitish
kings of Mount Seir (Gen. 36:40).
Jethlah - suspended; high, a city on the borders of
Dan (Josh. 19:42).
Jethro - his excellence, or gain, a prince or priest
of Midian, who succeeded his father Reuel. Moses spent forty years after his
exile from the Egyptian court as keeper of Jethro's flocks. While the Israelites
were encamped at Sinai, and soon after their victory over Amalek, Jethro came to
meet Moses, bringing with him Zipporah and her two sons. They met at the "mount
of God," and "Moses told him all that the Lord had done unto Pharaoh" (Ex.
18:8). On the following day Jethro, observing the multiplicity of the duties
devolving on Moses, advised him to appoint subordinate judges, rulers of
thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens, to decide smaller matters,
leaving only the weightier matters to be referred to Moses, to be laid before
the Lord. This advice Moses adopted (Ex. 18). He was also called Hobab (q.v.),
which was probably his personal name, while Jethro was an official name. (See MOSES.)
Jetur - an enclosure, one of the twelve sons of
Ishmael (Gen. 25:15).
Jeuel - snatched away by God, a descendant of Zerah
(1 Chr. 9:6).
Jeush - assembler. (1.) The oldest of Esau's three
sons by Aholibamah (Gen. 36:5, 14, 18).
(2.) A son of Bilhan, grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:10).
(3.) A Levite, one of the sons of Shimei (1 Chr. 23:10, 11).
(4.) One of the three sons of Rehoboam (2 Chr. 11:19).
(5.) 1 Chr. 8:39.
Jew - the name derived from the patriarch Judah, at
first given to one belonging to the tribe of Judah or to the separate kingdom of
Judah (2 Kings 16:6; 25:25; Jer. 32:12; 38:19; 40:11; 41:3), in
contradistinction from those belonging to the kingdom of the ten tribes, who
were called Israelites.
During the Captivity, and after the Restoration, the name, however, was
extended to all the Hebrew nation without distinction (Esther 3:6, 10; Dan. 3:8,
12; Ezra 4:12; 5:1, 5).
Originally this people were called Hebrews (Gen. 39:14; 40:15; Ex. 2:7; 3:18;
5:3; 1 Sam. 4:6, 9, etc.), but after the Exile this name fell into disuse. But
Paul was styled a Hebrew (2 Cor. 11:22; Phil. 3:5).
The history of the Jewish nation is interwoven with the history of Palestine
and with the narratives of the lives of their rulers and chief men. They are now
 dispersed over all lands, and to this day remain a separate people,
"without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an
image [R.V. 'pillar,' marg. 'obelisk'], and without an ephod, and without
teraphim" (Hos. 3:4). Till about the beginning of the present century 
they were everywhere greatly oppressed, and often cruelly persecuted; but now
their condition is greatly improved, and they are admitted in most European
countries to all the rights of free citizens. In 1860 the "Jewish disabilities"
were removed, and they were admitted to a seat in the British Parliament. Their
number in all is estimated at about six millions, about four millions being in
There are three names used in the New Testament to designate this people,
(1.) Jews, as regards their nationality, to distinguish them from Gentiles. (2.)
Hebrews, with regard to their language and education, to distinguish them from
Hellenists, i.e., Jews who spoke the Greek language. (3.) Israelites, as
respects their sacred privileges as the chosen people of God. "To other races we
owe the splendid inheritance of modern civilization and secular culture; but the
religious education of mankind has been the gift of the Jew alone."
Jewess - a woman of Hebrew birth, as Eunice, the
mother of Timothy (Acts 16:1; 2 Tim. 1:5), and Drusilla (Acts 24:24), wife of
Felix, and daughter of Herod Agrippa I.
Jezebel - chaste, the daughter of Ethbaal, the king
of the Zidonians, and the wife of Ahab, the king of Israel (1 Kings 16:31). This
was the "first time that a king of Israel had allied himself by marriage with a
heathen princess; and the alliance was in this case of a peculiarly disastrous
kind. Jezebel has stamped her name on history as the representative of all that
is designing, crafty, malicious, revengeful, and cruel. She is the first great
instigator of persecution against the saints of God. Guided by no principle,
restrained by no fear of either God or man, passionate in her attachment to her
heathen worship, she spared no pains to maintain idolatry around her in all its
splendour. Four hundred and fifty prophets ministered under her care to Baal,
besides four hundred prophets of the groves [R.V., 'prophets of the Asherah'],
which ate at her table (1 Kings 18:19). The idolatry, too, was of the most
debased and sensual kind." Her conduct was in many respects very disastrous to
the kingdom both of Israel and Judah (21:1-29). At length she came to an
untimely end. As Jehu rode into the gates of Jezreel, she looked out at the
window of the palace, and said, "Had Zimri peace, who slew his master?" He
looked up and called to her chamberlains, who instantly threw her from the
window, so that she was dashed in pieces on the street, and his horses trod her
under their feet. She was immediately consumed by the dogs of the street (2
Kings 9:7-37), according to the word of Elijah the Tishbite (1 Kings 21:19).
Her name afterwards came to be used as the synonym for a wicked woman (Rev.
It may be noted that she is said to have been the grand-aunt of Dido, the
founder of Carthage.
Jeziel - assembled by God, a son of Azmaveth. He was
one of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
Jezreel - God scatters. (1.) A town of Issachar
(Josh. 19:18), where the kings of Israel often resided (1 Kings 18:45; 21:1; 2
Kings 9:30). Here Elijah met Ahab, Jehu, and Bidkar; and here Jehu executed his
dreadful commission against the house of Ahab (2 Kings 9:14-37; 10:1-11). It has
been identified with the modern Zerin, on the most western point of the range of
Gilboa, reaching down into the great and fertile valley of Jezreel, to which it
gave its name.
(2.) A town in Judah (Josh. 15:56), to the south-east of Hebron. Ahinoam, one
of David's wives, probably belonged to this place (1 Sam. 27:3).
(3.) A symbolical name given by Hosea to his oldest son (Hos. 1:4), in token
of a great slaughter predicted by him, like that which had formerly taken place
in the plain of Esdraelon (comp. Hos. 1:4, 5).
Jezreel, Blood of - the murder perpetrated here by
Ahab and Jehu (Hos. 1:4; comp. 1 Kings 18:4; 2 Kings 9:6-10).
Jezreel, Day of - the time predicted for the
execution of vengeance for the deeds of blood committed there (Hos. 1:5).
Jezreel, Ditch of - (1 Kings 21:23; comp. 13), the
fortification surrounding the city, outside of which Naboth was executed.
Jezreel, Fountain of - where Saul encamped before the
battle of Gilboa (1 Sam. 29:1). In the valley under Zerin there are two
considerable springs, one of which, perhaps that here referred to, "flows from
under a sort of cavern in the wall of conglomerate rock which here forms the
base of Gilboa. The water is excellent; and issuing from crevices in the rocks,
it spreads out at once into a fine limpid pool forty or fifty feet in diameter,
full of fish" (Robinson). This may be identical with the "well of Harod" (Judg.
7:1; comp. 2 Sam. 23:25), probably the 'Ain Jalud, i.e., the "spring of
Jezreel, Portion of - the field adjoining the city (2
Kings 9:10, 21, 36, 37). Here Naboth was stoned to death (1 Kings 21:13).
Jezreel, Tower of - one of the turrets which guarded
the entrance to the city (2 Kings 9:17).
Jezreel, Valley of - lying on the northern side of
the city, between the ridges of Gilboa and Moreh, an offshoot of Esdraelon,
running east to the Jordan (Josh. 17:16; Judg. 6:33; Hos. 1:5). It was the scene
of the signal victory gained by the Israelites under Gideon over the Midianites,
the Amalekites, and the "children of the east" (Judg. 6:3). Two centuries after
this the Israelites were here defeated by the Philistines, and Saul and
Jonathan, with the flower of the army of Israel, fell (1 Sam. 31:1-6).
This name was in after ages extended to the whole of the plain of Esdraelon
(q.v.). It was only this plain of Jezreel and that north of Lake Huleh that were
then accessible to the chariots of the Canaanites (comp. 2 Kings 9:21; 10:15).
Joab - Jehovah is his father. (1.) One of the three
sons of Zeruiah, David's sister, and "captain of the host" during the whole of
David's reign (2 Sam. 2:13; 10:7; 11:1; 1 Kings 11:15). His father's name is
nowhere mentioned, although his sepulchre at Bethlehem is mentioned (2 Sam.
2:32). His two brothers were Abishai and Asahel, the swift of foot, who was
killed by Abner (2 Sam. 2:13-32), whom Joab afterwards treacherously murdered
(3:22-27). He afterwards led the assault at the storming of the fortress on
Mount Zion, and for this service was raised to the rank of "prince of the king's
army" (2 Sam. 5:6-10; 1 Chr. 27:34). His chief military achievements were, (1)
against the allied forces of Syria and Ammon; (2) against Edom (1 Kings 11:15,
16); and (3) against the Ammonites (2 Sam. 10:7-19; 11:1, 11). His character is
deeply stained by the part he willingly took in the murder of Uriah (11:14-25).
He acted apparently from a sense of duty in putting Absalom to death (18:1-14).
David was unmindful of the many services Joab had rendered to him, and
afterwards gave the command of the army to Amasa, Joab's cousin (2 Sam. 20:1-13;
19:13). When David was dying Joab espoused the cause of Adonijah in preference
to that of Solomon. He was afterwards slain by Benaiah, by the command of
Solomon, in accordance with his father's injunction (2 Sam. 3:29; 20:5-13), at
the altar to which he had fled for refuge. Thus this hoary conspirator died
without one to lift up a voice in his favour. He was buried in his own property
in the "wilderness," probably in the north-east of Jerusalem (1 Kings 2:5,
28-34). Benaiah succeeded him as commander-in-chief of the army.
(2.) 1 Chr. 4:14.
(3.) Ezra 2:6.
Joah - Jehovah his brother; i.e., helper. (1.) One of
the sons of Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4), a Korhite porter.
(2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chr. 6:21), probably the same as
(3.) The son of Asaph, and "recorder" (q.v.) or chronicler to King Hezekiah
(2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37).
(4.) Son of Joahaz, and "recorder" (q.v.) or keeper of the state archives
under King Josiah (2 Chr. 34:8).
Joahaz - (2 Chr. 34:8), a contracted form of Jehoahaz
Joanna - whom Jehovah has graciously given. (1.) The
grandson of Zerubbabel, in the lineage of Christ (Luke 3:27); the same as
Hananiah (1 Chr. 3:19).
(2.) The wife of Chuza, the steward of Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee
(Luke 8:3). She was one of the women who ministered to our Lord, and to whom he
appeared after his resurrection (Luke 8:3; 24:10).
Joash - whom Jehovah bestowed. (1.) A contracted form
of Jehoash, the father of Gideon (Judg. 6:11, 29; 8:13, 29, 32).
(2.) One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
(3.) One of King Ahab's sons (1 Kings 22:26).
(4.) King of Judah (2 Kings 11:2; 12:19, 20). (See JEHOASH ¯T0002005 .)
(5.) King of Israel (2 Kings 13:9, 12, 13, 25). (See JEHOASH ¯T0002005 .)
(6.) 1 Chr. 7:8.
(7.) One who had charge of the royal stores of oil under David and Solomon (1
Job - persecuted, an Arabian patriarch who resided in
the land of Uz (q.v.). While living in the midst of great prosperity, he was
suddenly overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon him. Amid all his
sufferings he maintained his integrity. Once more God visited him with the rich
tokens of his goodness and even greater prosperity than he had enjoyed before.
He survived the period of trial for one hundred and forty years, and died in a
good old age, an example to succeeding generations of integrity (Ezek. 14:14,
20) and of submissive patience under the sorest calamities (James 5:11). His
history, so far as it is known, is recorded in his book.
Jobab - dweller in the desert. (1.) One of the sons
of Joktan, and founder of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 10:29). (2.) King of Edom,
succeeded Bela (Gen. 36:33, 34). (3.) A Canaanitish king (Josh. 11:1) who joined
the confederacy against Joshua.
Job, Book of - A great diversity of opinion exists as
to the authorship of this book. From internal evidence, such as the similarity
of sentiment and language to those in the Psalms and Proverbs (see Ps. 88 and
89), the prevalence of the idea of "wisdom," and the style and character of the
composition, it is supposed by some to have been written in the time of David
and Solomon. Others argue that it was written by Job himself, or by Elihu, or
Isaiah, or perhaps more probably by Moses, who was "learned in all the wisdom of
the Egyptians, and mighty in words and deeds" (Acts 7:22). He had opportunities
in Midian for obtaining the knowledge of the facts related. But the authorship
is altogether uncertain.
As to the character of the book, it is a historical poem, one of the greatest
and sublimest poems in all literature. Job was a historical person, and the
localities and names were real and not fictious. It is "one of the grandest
portions of the inspired Scriptures, a heavenly-repleished storehouse of comfort
and instruction, the patriarchal Bible, and a precious monument of primitive
theology. It is to the Old Testament what the Epistle to the Romans is to the
New." It is a didactic narrative in a dramatic form.
This book was apparently well known in the days of Ezekiel, B.C. 600 (Ezek.
14:14). It formed a part of the sacred Scriptures used by our Lord and his
apostles, and is referred to as a part of the inspired Word (Heb. 12:5; 1 Cor.
The subject of the book is the trial of Job, its occasion, nature, endurance,
and issue. It exhibits the harmony of the truths of revelation and the dealings
of Providence, which are seen to be at once inscrutable, just, and merciful. It
shows the blessedness of the truly pious, even amid sore afflictions, and thus
ministers comfort and hope to tried believers of every age. It is a book of
manifold instruction, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for
correction, and for instruction in righteousness (2 Tim. 3:16).
It consists of,
(1.) An historical introduction in prose (ch. 1,2).
(2.) The controversy and its solution, in poetry (ch. 3-42:6).
Job's desponding lamentation (ch. 3) is the occasion of the controversy which
is carried on in three courses of dialogues between Job and his three friends.
The first course gives the commencement of the controversy (ch. 4-14); the
second the growth of the controversy (15-21); and the third the height of the
controversy (22-27). This is followed by the solution of the controversy in the
speeches of Elihu and the address of Jehovah, followed by Job's humble
confession (42:1-6) of his own fault and folly.
(3.) The third division is the historical conclusion, in prose (42:7-15).
Sir J. W. Dawson in "The Expositor" says: "It would now seem that the
language and theology of the book of Job can be better explained by supposing it
to be a portion of Minean [Southern Arabia] literature obtained by Moses in
Midian than in any other way. This view also agrees better than any other with
its references to natural objects, the art of mining, and other matters."
Jochebed - Jehovah is her glory, the wife of Amram,
and the mother of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses (Num. 26:59). She is spoken of as the
sister of Kohath, Amram's father (Ex. 6:20; comp. 16, 18; 2:1-10).
Joel - Jehovah is his God. (1.) The oldest of
Samuel's two sons appointed by him as judges in Beersheba (1 Sam. 8:2). (See
VASHNI ¯(n/a).) (2.) A descendant of Reuben (1 Chr. 5:4,8). (3.) One of David's
famous warriors (1 Chr. 11:38). (4.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chr.
15:7, 11). (5.) 1 Chr. 7:3. (6.) 1 Chr. 27:20. (7.) The second of the twelve
minor prophets. He was the son of Pethuel. His personal history is only known
from his book.
Joelah - a Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1
Joel, Book of - Joel was probably a resident in
Judah, as his commission was to that people. He makes frequent mention of Judah
and Jerusalem (1:14; 2:1, 15, 32; 3:1, 12, 17, 20, 21).
He probably flourished in the reign of Uzziah (about B.C. 800), and was
contemporary with Amos and Isaiah.
The contents of this book are, (1.) A prophecy of a great public calamity
then impending over the land, consisting of a want of water and an extraordinary
plague of locusts (1:1-2:11). (2.) The prophet then calls on his countrymen to
repent and to turn to God, assuring them of his readiness to forgive (2:12-17),
and foretelling the restoration of the land to its accustomed fruitfulness
(18-26). (3.) Then follows a Messianic prophecy, quoted by Peter (Acts 2:39).
(4.) Finally, the prophet foretells portents and judgments as destined to fall
on the enemies of God (ch. 3, but in the Hebrew text 4).
Joezer - Jehovah is his help, one of the Korhites who
became part of David's body-guard (1 Chr. 12:6).
Johanan - whom Jehovah graciously bestows. (1.) One
of the Gadite heroes who joined David in the desert of Judah (1 Chr. 12:12).
(2.) The oldest of King Josiah's sons (1 Chr. 3:15).
(3.) Son of Careah, one of the Jewish chiefs who rallied round Gedaliah, whom
Nebuchadnezzar had made governor in Jerusalem (2 Kings 25:23; Jer. 40:8). He
warned Gedaliah of the plans of Ishmael against him, a warning which was
unheeded (Jer. 40:13, 16). He afterwards pursued the murderer of the governor,
and rescued the captives (41:8, 13, 15, 16). He and his associates subsequently
fled to Tahpanhes in Egypt (43:2, 4, 5), taking Jeremiah with them. "The flight
of Gedaliah's community to Egypt extinguished the last remaining spark of life
in the Jewish state. The work of the ten centuries since Joshua crossed the
Jordan had been undone."
John - (1.) One who, with Annas and Caiaphas, sat in
judgment on the apostles Peter and John (Acts 4:6). He was of the kindred of the
high priest; otherwise unknown.
(2.) The Hebrew name of Mark (q.v.). He is designated by this name in the
acts of the Apostles (12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37).
(3.) THE APOSTLE, brother of James the "Greater" (Matt. 4:21; 10:2; Mark
1:19; 3:17; 10:35). He was one, probably the younger, of the sons of Zebedee
(Matt. 4:21) and Salome (Matt. 27:56; comp. Mark 15:40), and was born at
Bethsaida. His father was apparently a man of some wealth (comp. Mark 1:20; Luke
5:3; John 19:27). He was doubtless trained in all that constituted the ordinary
education of Jewish youth. When he grew up he followed the occupation of a
fisherman on the Lake of Galilee. When John the Baptist began his ministry in
the wilderness of Judea, John, with many others, gathered round him, and was
deeply influenced by his teaching. There he heard the announcement, "Behold the
Lamb of God," and forthwith, on the invitation of Jesus, became a disciple and
ranked among his followers (John 1:36, 37) for a time. He and his brother then
returned to their former avocation, for how long is uncertain. Jesus again
called them (Matt. 4: 21; Luke 5:1-11), and now they left all and permanently
attached themselves to the company of his disciples. He became one of the
innermost circle (Mark 5:37; Matt. 17:1; 26:37; Mark 13:3). He was the disciple
whom Jesus loved. In zeal and intensity of character he was a "Boanerges" (Mark
3:17). This spirit once and again broke out (Matt. 20:20-24; Mark 10:35-41; Luke
9:49, 54). At the betrayal he and Peter follow Christ afar off, while the others
betake themselves to hasty flight (John 18:15). At the trial he follows Christ
into the council chamber, and thence to the praetorium (18:16, 19, 28) and to
the place of crucifixion (19:26, 27). To him and Peter, Mary first conveys
tidings of the resurrection (20:2), and they are the first to go and see what
her strange words mean. After the resurrection he and Peter again return to the
Sea of Galilee, where the Lord reveals himself to them (21:1, 7). We find Peter
and John frequently after this together (Acts 3:1; 4:13). John remained
apparently in Jerusalem as the leader of the church there (Acts 15:6; Gal. 2:9).
His subsequent history is unrecorded. He was not there, however, at the time of
Paul's last visit (Acts 21:15-40). He appears to have retired to Ephesus, but at
what time is unknown. The seven churches of Asia were the objects of his special
care (Rev. 1:11). He suffered under persecution, and was banished to Patmos
(1:9); whence he again returned to Ephesus, where he died, probably about A.D.
98, having outlived all or nearly all the friends and companions even of his
maturer years. There are many interesting traditions regarding John during his
residence at Ephesus, but these cannot claim the character of historical truth.
John, First Epistle of - the fourth of the catholic
or "general" epistles. It was evidently written by John the evangelist, and
probably also at Ephesus, and when the writer was in advanced age. The purpose
of the apostle (1:1-4) is to declare the Word of Life to those to whom he
writes, in order that they might be united in fellowship with the Father and his
Son Jesus Christ. He shows that the means of union with God are, (1) on the part
of Christ, his atoning work (1:7; 2:2; 3:5; 4:10, 14; 5:11, 12) and his advocacy
(2:1); and (2), on the part of man, holiness (1:6), obedience (2:3), purity
(3:3), faith (3:23; 4:3; 5:5), and love (2:7, 8; 3:14; 4:7; 5:1).
John, Gospel of - The genuineness of this Gospel,
i.e., the fact that the apostle John was its author, is beyond all reasonable
doubt. In recent times, from about 1820, many attempts have been made to impugn
its genuineness, but without success.
The design of John in writing this Gospel is stated by himself (John 20:31).
It was at one time supposed that he wrote for the purpose of supplying the
omissions of the synoptical, i.e., of the first three, Gospels, but there is no
evidence for this. "There is here no history of Jesus and his teaching after the
manner of the other evangelists. But there is in historical form a
representation of the Christian faith in relation to the person of Christ as its
central point; and in this representation there is a picture on the one hand of
the antagonism of the world to the truth revealed in him, and on the other of
the spiritual blessedness of the few who yield themselves to him as the Light of
After the prologue (1:1-5), the historical part of the book begins with verse
6, and consists of two parts. The first part (1:6-ch. 12) contains the history
of our Lord's public ministry from the time of his introduction to it by John
the Baptist to its close. The second part (ch. 13-21) presents our Lord in the
retirement of private life and in his intercourse with his immediate followers
(13-17), and gives an account of his sufferings and of his appearances to the
disciples after his resurrection (18-21).
The peculiarities of this Gospel are the place it gives (1) to the mystical
relation of the Son to the Father, and (2) of the Redeemer to believers; (3) the
announcement of the Holy Ghost as the Comforter; (4) the prominence given to
love as an element in the Christian character. It was obviously addressed
primarily to Christians.
It was probably written at Ephesus, which, after the destruction of Jerusalem
(A.D. 70), became the centre of Christian life and activity in the East, about
John, Second Epistle of - is addressed to "the elect
lady," and closes with the words, "The children of thy elect sister greet thee;"
but some would read instead of "lady" the proper name Kyria. Of the thirteen
verses composing this epistle seven are in the First Epistle. The person
addressed is commended for her piety, and is warned against false teachers.
John the Baptist - the "forerunner of our Lord." We
have but fragmentary and imperfect accounts of him in the Gospels. He was of
priestly descent. His father, Zacharias, was a priest of the course of Abia (1
Chr. 24:10), and his mother, Elisabeth, was of the daughters of Aaron (Luke
1:5). The mission of John was the subject of prophecy (Matt. 3:3; Isa. 40:3;
Mal. 3:1). His birth, which took place six months before that of Jesus, was
foretold by an angel. Zacharias, deprived of the power of speech as a token of
God's truth and a reproof of his own incredulity with reference to the birth of
his son, had the power of speech restored to him on the occasion of his
circumcision (Luke 1:64). After this no more is recorded of him for thirty years
than what is mentioned in Luke 1:80. John was a Nazarite from his birth (Luke
1:15; Num. 6:1-12). He spent his early years in the mountainous tract of Judah
lying between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea (Matt. 3:1-12).
At length he came forth into public life, and great multitudes from "every
quarter" were attracted to him. The sum of his preaching was the necessity of
repentance. He denounced the Sadducees and Pharisees as a "generation of
vipers," and warned them of the folly of trusting to external privileges (Luke
3:8). "As a preacher, John was eminently practical and discriminating. Self-love
and covetousness were the prevalent sins of the people at large. On them,
therefore, he enjoined charity and consideration for others. The publicans he
cautioned against extortion, the soldiers against crime and plunder." His
doctrine and manner of life roused the entire south of Palestine, and the people
from all parts flocked to the place where he was, on the banks of the Jordan.
There he baptized thousands unto repentance.
The fame of John reached the ears of Jesus in Nazareth (Matt. 3:5), and he
came from Galilee to Jordan to be baptized of John, on the special ground that
it became him to "fulfil all righteousness" (3:15). John's special office ceased
with the baptism of Jesus, who must now "increase" as the King come to his
kingdom. He continued, however, for a while to bear testimony to the Messiahship
of Jesus. He pointed him out to his disciples, saying, "Behold the Lamb of God."
His public ministry was suddenly (after about six months probably) brought to a
close by his being cast into prison by Herod, whom he had reproved for the sin
of having taken to himself the wife of his brother Philip (Luke 3:19). He was
shut up in the castle of Machaerus (q.v.), a fortress on the southern extremity
of Peraea, 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, and here he was beheaded. His
disciples, having consigned the headless body to the grave, went and told Jesus
all that had occurred (Matt. 14:3-12). John's death occurred apparently just
before the third Passover of our Lord's ministry. Our Lord himself testified
regarding him that he was a "burning and a shining light" (John 5:35).
John, Third Epistle of - is addressed to Caius, or
Gaius, but whether to the Christian of that name in Macedonia (Acts 19: 29) or
in Corinth (Rom. 16:23) or in Derbe (Acts 20:4) is uncertain. It was written for
the purpose of commending to Gaius some Christians who were strangers in the
place where he lived, and who had gone thither for the purpose of preaching the
gospel (ver. 7).
The Second and Third Epistles were probably written soon after the First, and
Joiada - (whom Jehovah favours) = Jehoiada. (1.) Neh.
3:6. (2.) One of the high priests (12:10, 11, 22).
Joiakim - (whom Jehovah has set up) = Jehoiakim, a
high priest, the son and successor of Jeshua (Neh. 12:10, 12, 26).
Joiarib - (whom Jehovah defends) = Jehoiarib. (1.)
The founder of one of the courses of the priests (Neh. 11:10).
(2.) Neh. 11:5; a descendant of Judah.
(3.) Neh. 12:6.
(4.) Ezra 8:16, a "man of understanding" whom Ezra sent to "bring ministers
for the house of God."
Jokdeam - a city in the mountains of Judah (Josh.
Jokim - whom Jehovah has set up, one of the
descendants of Shelah (1 Chr. 4:22).
Jokmeam - gathering of the people, a city of Ephraim,
which was given with its suburbs to the Levites (1 Chr. 6:68). It lay somewhere
in the Jordan valley (1 Kings 4:12, R.V.; but in A.V. incorrectly "Jokneam").